Chapter 8: Defining disaster in volcanology
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Volcanic disasters are created when physical hazards intersect with social factors operating over different timescales: root causes of risk, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions. Disaster scholars acknowledge some groups and communities are marginally positioned, which heightens vulnerability. However, disaster research continues to centre work on the hazard rather than the social, and thus fails to offer solutions to how volcanic disasters perpetuate existing inequalities. In this chapter, an avenue within volcanology to critically examine social factors that underpin volcanic risk is presented. We introduce feminist methodologies and theory as tools that acknowledge multiple interdependent and overlapping inequalities. Exploration of two case studies through a feminist lens allows to showcase its usefulness to volcanology and to support emerging voices that acknowledge the variability of volcanic risk. We recommend the capture of these voices as a practical method to understand different ways volcanic eruptions can generate multiple impacts for individuals and communities.

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