Chapter 6: Beyond programs: toward a fuller picture of beneficiaries in nonprofit evaluation
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The purpose of this chapter is to invite the reader to consider whether the ‘program’, as a practical anchor that guides evaluation practice, remains a useful starting point for evaluation in nonprofit and voluntary organizations. In these settings, using logic program models and developing program theories of change have become common tools used to identify and track program activities, outputs and intended program outcomes. And although helpful for these organizations, using these program evaluation tools to guide evaluation in these settings also risks mischaracterizing the impact of nonprofits because beneficiaries are considered to be program recipients. In contrast, the chapter brings in literature outside of evaluation to provide a fuller understanding of beneficiaries as organizational actors in nonprofits, where understanding their contributions, authority and status in the organization is necessary to fully measure the impact of nonprofit and voluntary organizations.

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