Does the level of election affect voters' behaviour? In this chapter, we answer this question focusing on voter turnout and vote choice. The objective is twofold. First, we provide a review of the descriptive information regarding the extent to which citizens participate across levels of elections, and how political parties fare from one level to another. Second, we examine how the multilevel nature of some political systems affects citizens' calculus of voting (for turnout and vote choice) by making some considerations more or less important across levels of elections. While research on electoral behaviour in multilevel systems is rapidly growing, we point out several important gaps that remain to be filled in order to improve our understanding of how citizens behave in different electoral contexts.
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