This chapter highlights the role of culture in leadership judgments and decision making (LJDM). We introduce Locke's six-stage process model of leadership as the context to frame our discussion. We then present two complementary perspectives of how culture could influence LJDM. The first perspective of cultural ethnology offers a comparative approach to explain cross-cultural differences in LJDM in the leadership process. The second perspective of cultural intelligence focuses on leaders' capabilities to detect existing cultural influences in LJDM and make new cultural norms to thrive in inter-cultural contexts. The cultural intelligence perspective shifts the focus from culture as a causal agent of LJDM to the leader as an active agent to create a new culture. Both perspectives are important in deepening our understanding of culture and LJDM. We conclude with future research directions on both the cultural ethnology and cultural intelligence perspectives on LJDM.
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