Chapter 13: Toward a co-creation approach to nation branding: an integrative framework
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Recently the co-creation perspective of branding is getting increased academic attention in response to the business environment becoming more connected with digital technologies. In the context of nation branding, co-creation is introduced as a practice to generate knowledge and expertise from the network to create new value propositions. The theoretical foundation for the co-creation of a nation brand, however, remains unclear. This chapter provides a conceptual framework for brand co-creation in the context of nation branding. The framework adopts an integrative approach towards branding to explain the marketing interactions actors encounter in the nation brand's co-creation. It defines the nation brand as being collectively formulated from these stakeholders' interactions in the nation branding network. The framework emphasizes that knowledge exchange, integration of resources, and the negotiation of value propositions are critical for marketing interactions to take place. A case study illustrates the conceptual framework, which leads to theoretical and managerial implications.

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