Building Information Modeling (BIM)-based processes have tremendously enhanced the capacity of the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector to adopt digital methods of information exchange and collaborative communications. In spite of the benefits that BIM models provide, the full potential of these models remains largely unrealized, especially in terms of integrating the virtual models with the physical construction. In this context, this chapter aims to investigate how two emerging and complementary technologies, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Digital Twins (DT), could be employed in the construction industry to enhance the bi-directional coordination between the virtual models and the physical construction. This chapter provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the state-of-the-art research on CPS and DT applications in the built environment, with a view to identifying the opportunities for leveraging BIM models to facilitate bi-directional coordination in the delivery and management of constructed facilities. Example systems are used to illustrate the benefits of moving beyond BIM towards CPS and DT. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the practical implications of adopting these emerging technologies in the AEC sector.
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