In this chapter, we provide a conceptual overview on natural language processing (NLP) and conversational agents. Based on the conceptualization, we reviewed the literature on NLP and conversational agents in human resources management (HRM). In total, we identified 50 papers that either focuses on NLP use in HRM in general (N=24) or on deploying HR conversational agents (N=26). Based on our literature analysis, we conclude the HR conversational agent model that guides future research in this area. We classified three types of conversational agents in HRM: to applicants, employees, and management. Most studies have focused on HR to applicant conversational agents. We also indicate that research has set a specific focus on sourcing services, especially on external recruiting. In contrast, NLP and conversational agents also provide the opportunity to improve other HRM services (e.g., planning, developing, motivating, and administrating). We call for research that extends the knowledge base by focusing on different HRM services and providing an individual perspective on the application, acceptance, and usage of NLP as well as conversational agents in HRM.
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