Mental health problems represent a growing work-related issue, with far-reaching impacts on workers, their families, employers and communities. Some professions, including veterinarians and veterinary nurses, are at a particular high risk of workplace mental health problems. This chapter adapts generic strategies for responding to workplace mental health problems to the specific needs of the veterinary sector as part of a broader study to show how guidelines can be tailored to suit the needs of specific occupational groups. Thirty veterinary professionals were consulted to discuss factors contributing to suicide and mental health problems amongst veterinary professions, factors that promote mental health, prevention strategies, and the short-, medium- and long-term actions that organizations could implement to address issues in different veterinary work settings. This information may be used to support veterinary workplaces to respond to work-related mental health problems that have been found to be highly prevalent in the veterinary context.
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Kathryn M. Page, Nicola J. Reavley, Allison J. Milner, Jenny Weston, Christine E. Thomson and Anthony D. LaMontagne
Valerie J. Morganson and Holly C. Atkinson
This chapter focuses on how work and personal life roles (e.g., family) can impact one another in positive ways. Since the concept of work–family enrichment was introduced and defined, research in the area has grown rapidly. We review literature concerning work–family enrichment antecedents (i.e., skills and perspectives, psychological and physical resources, flexibility and material resources). We also review outcomes of enrichment, including those that are work-related (e.g., job satisfaction, turnover), non-work-related (e.g., family satisfaction), health-related (e.g., burnout, mental health), and the impact of enrichment on other individuals (i.e., crossover). In addition to descriptive research, some studies have begun to explore individual and organizational interventions to increase enrichment, such as coping and leadership, respectively. The review concludes with directions for future research.
Work engagement has spawned a great deal of interest since its initial conceptualization. To date, many researchers have connected levels of work engagement to a wide range of employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes. However, there are relatively fewer studies on work engagement and employee well-being. This chapter presents a review of existing research on work engagement variables in relation to several dimensions of employee well-being. This is supported by a brief overview of work engagement variables and their measurement. In particular, work engagement and its known correlates are considered within the job demands-resources model of organizational behavior and employee well-being. Finally, implications of the research are discussed in terms of limitations, future research, and actions that organizations could take to improve levels of both work engagement and employee well-being. One issue for future consideration is whether work engagement, itself, should be considered as a form of employee well-being.
Helen Lingard and Michelle Turner
This chapter considers the occupational health of workers in the Australian construction industry, with a particular focus on psychosocial hazards and mental health. Both the antecedents and outcomes of poor mental health are explored throughout the chapter, which draws on research conducted by the authors. Case studies are used to illustrate some of the key factors impacting on the health of workers. Construction work is largely project based with poor job security, and long and irregular working hours are the norm. The importance of recovery is highlighted for maintaining good health in this high-demands industry. Construction workers experience work–family conflict and burnout that lead to poor health outcomes for the worker. These workers also engage in physically demanding work and the incidences of physical injury and work disability are high. The interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors of workers is considered. Workplace health promotion programmes implemented by organizations focus on changing individual workers’ lifestyle behaviours. Those programmes need to be carefully designed to address the fundamental causes of poor health in the construction industry.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the collection. Adults spend over one-third of their waking hours at work. Work can enhance or diminish well-being. Well-being is an umbrella concept including happiness, satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing among others. Stress at work is a major factor influencing well-being. Workplace stress exerts a high financial cost to societies, thus well-being is important for both individuals and organizations. Sources of stress that have received research attention include long work hours, autocratic leadership, bias and discrimination, sexual harassment, low levels of job security, and unsafe work environments. The goal for organizations then is to create more psychologically healthy and positive workplaces. Factors associated with such workplaces include types of leadership (transformational, servant), levels of job security, reasonable workloads, opportunities to increase person–job fit, training and development opportunities, high levels of job civility and fairness, investments in developing human capital in all employees, and fun at work. Organizational case studies of psychologically healthy workplaces are offered.
Joseph Powderly and Jacob Chylinski
Homelessness is widely viewed as among the most compelling forms of poverty in affluent countries. But what is homelessness? This question is deceptively straightforward and the subject of debate in sociology and social policy. These debates are not solely academic, since definitions of homelessness are inseparable from the explanations postulated and solutions offered for it. In Australia, a major point of contention is whether homelessness denotes a lack of physical housing structures or should be understood in relation to the idea of a home, which has social, spatial and subjective elements. Informed by empirical research, this chapter seeks to move beyond the housing/home opposition that underpins much research, developing an understanding of homelessness as a form of dwelling. Its aim is not to provide a final definition of homelessness, but to provide a research framework that facilitates understanding and assist in the navigation of recent debates. Keywords: homelessness, dwelling, housing, home, inequality, Australia
John Stanley, Janet Stanley and Roslynne Hansen
What makes for a great city in the 21st century? If one aspires to a vision like that of Vancouver, as we do, what does it actually mean and how can a city best realise its vision? Questions such as these are the reason for this book, focusing on cities in highly developed western economies and working from a perspective that sees the idea of integrated planning as a core starting point. This chapter outlines some of the important trends we have observed in urban land use transport planning in recent years, such as: a growing sustainability focus; more attention being paid to structural economic changes and how they affect the spatial structure of cities; the growing importance of neighbourhood, adding a local lens to strategic planning; the interest in compact settlement patterns and in how knowledge of built form and travel interactions can be used to promote this settlement pattern; putting transport in its place, as a servant of land use, rather than letting it determine wider urban outcomes ; and, an increased interest in governance and funding. Our interest is in identifying how the growing knowledge base in such areas can be brought together more effectively, to deliver better urban outcomes. This underlines the vital role we see for a broader, more integrated approach to strategic urban land use transport planning. Subsequent chapters explore improved practice in some detail, with extensive use of case study material.
Christian Koenig and Bernhard von Wendland
Regulation is the key to overcoming the tyranny of the marketplace in the pursuit of economic justice and welfare: it can prevent the abuse of economic dominance. Such abuse undermines a functioning market, the economic motor to producing welfare, sustainability and inclusiveness. Abuse of public capital is as omnipresent as the abuse of market dominance by private capital. The state can make major investments or compete with the private sector, or pick winners and subsidise them. Such interventions may be necessary e.g. to provide infrastructure. The wasteful allocation of public monies, however, can do immense harm: it can crowd out private investments, distort private incentives and help foreclosing markets. In any case, it deviates scarce funds from those who need them most. Therefore, regulation of state aid and public procurement is just as essential as regulation against the abuse of market dominance by private capital. State monopolies have been another public cause of economic exploitation until the recent past. Besides poor quality of service, consumer bondage within state monopolies used to entail much higher prices for services compared to liberalised markets in other jurisdictions. After liberalisation though, complex and well-adjusted regulation is crucial to induce functioning competition and to allocate the welfare benefits from liberalisation. Keywords: abuse of market dominance, liberalisation, state aid, states monopolies, regulation