This chapter addresses the differences in prosperity and well-being that follow from the high levels of youth unemployment in the EU. Not only do the member states that were hardest hit by the economic crisis have the highest levels of youth unemployment; equally important is the rapidly widening prosperity gap between generations in Europe’s labour market. The author reviews the many EU-level initiatives taken to combat youth unemployment following the crisis. Her analysis underlines the risks involved in adopting legislative reforms that weaken employment protection specifically for young employees. Reforms of this kind have worsened the prosperity gap between generations, since they mean that younger employees receive lower salaries and enjoy less job security than their older counterparts. Against this background, the author argues, it is essential that fundamental social rights are observed in relation to all citizens, including young persons in the EU’s workforce.
The Social Challenge Ahead
Jenny Julén Votinius
Implications for Regions and Industries
Makoto Hirano, Mitsuhiro Kurashige and Kiyonori Sakakibara
Yanagiya Machinery Co. Ltd was initially involved in processing local fish to steamed fish paste, as one of the small regional enterprises in Japanese traditional craft-like industries, over 100 years ago. However, they have recently grown to be a medium-sized enterprise with over 150 employees and annual sales of over 4 billion yen. Their current business areas are designing, manufacturing and selling machines for producing processed foods – mainly steamed fish paste. Nowadays, they are developing and exporting machines for a variety of manufacturing needs within the processed foods industry. This chapter describes how they have shifted their operations to such a growing market domain and how they have developed original technologies with competitive competence. Their experience of transforming the business could be instructive to other regional small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in declining manufacturing industries.
Enabling Developing Countries
Chapter 2 provides a conceptual framework to the book. By identifying, describing and analysing the important concepts and issues, the chapter seeks to prepare a benchmark against which the theoretical and empirical findings presented in the following chapters should be assessed and analysed by readers. Most importantly, it conceptualises PPP in the context of WTO DSM as it puts forward the dispute settlement partnership approach as one of the key in-house strategies that can produce positive capacity-building results in developing countries.
The World Bank is the most powerful global development institution in the world, both in terms of the resources it commands and its position as a ‘Knowledge Bank’ for shaping the field of development. This chapter explores the evolution of gender work within the Bank, from the early days of Women in Development to the current Smart Economics agenda. It situates the World Bank – and gender policy within the Bank – in the broader context of feminist debates about how best to shape development policy. Can feminists work within the institution to transform it, or do they risk being co-opted in the process? Feminist political economy scholarship on the World Bank shows us that the institution’s rhetorical embrace of gender equality largely serves to provide support for a pre-existing neoliberal policy agenda.
Andrew M. Baker and Naveen Naveen
Marketing managers of new products have long been interested in understanding how consumer word-of-mouth (WOM) can influence the financial success of products. While there is an extensive body of recent WOM research, empirical findings about the relationship between WOM and marketing outcomes tend to vary substantially across WOM types, contexts, research methods, marketing outcomes, and brand traits. This chapter endeavors to provide a more cohesive understanding about the current state of WOM research with a strong emphasis on considering how current insights are particularly relevant during the new product launch stage. The authors summarize recent studies about the antecedents of WOM as well as research that investigates the consequences of consumer WOM. They conclude their review and discussion by introducing a research framework for brands, WOM, and new products, and explain how the framework could be used by marketing scholars to direct future research efforts into this arena.
Women entrepreneurs in South Africa: maintaining a balance between culture, personal life, and businessBridget Irene
A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research
Bridget Irene’s chapter analyses the work–life balance issues that impact the success of women entrepreneurs in South Africa. Addressing the need to identify the factors that affect success in SMEs owned and managed by women, Irene presents an overview of the perceived impact of work–life balance and the perception of success amongst women entrepreneurs. Maintaining a balance between business and family life has gained attention in the mainstream research on women’s entrepreneurship. Irene’s findings suggest that most South African women entrepreneurs are concerned with achieving a better work–life balance and do not seek financial success at the expense of their family lives, whether their own or those of their employees. Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider women’s entrepreneurship as an avenue for social and cultural change, not just a route to financial emancipation. While, in contrast to the constraints of a traditional job, entrepreneurship offers a woman the flexibility to manage her multiple obligations, some women see their success as being hindered by their first priority (given the societal views and obligations), which is always family, not their businesses. Female entrepreneurs also consider their personal competency vital to their success, and feel the need for self-development in order to succeed in a society that still undermines and doubts the abilities of women to manage a business.
A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research
Edited by Shumaila Yousafzai, Alain Fayolle, Adam Lindgreen, Colette Henry, Saadat Saeed and Shandana Sheikh
This chapter explores the links between gender and unfree labour – including those forms often referred to as forced labour, human trafficking and modern slavery – in the global economy. It argues that although significant media, policy and scholarly attention have focused on the trafficking of women and girls and their exploitation within the sex, domestic and care industries, there has been a tendency to overlook women’s exploitation within ‘productive’ industry, including agriculture, electronics, garments and fisheries. This depiction has led to a skewed understanding of women’s vulnerability to unfree labour, as well as its causes and solutions. Building on V. Spike Peterson’s insight that our theoretical conceptualizations of ‘gender’ in political economy matter, the author argues that in addition to stronger and different empirics, deeper theoretical thinking is necessary to make meaningful progress towards understanding gender and unfree labour in International Political Economy.
Using Foreign Aid to Delegate Global Security
Jean-Paul Azam and Véronique Thelen
Crisis, Accountability, and Opportunity
What are the UNSC's prospects for a counter-terrorist discourse and corresponding policies consistent with international human rights norms and standards? What is the responsibility of the UNSC and what is the responsibility of member states? What are the existing accountability gaps and how can they be addressed? In examining these issues, this chapter critically discusses the ongoing interplay between the legal regimes governing the maintenance of international peace and security and human rights and assesses the shifting dynamics between the hierarchical and participatory facets of the international legal process, as manifested through the UNSC’s “legislative activism” since the adoption of UNSCR 1373. By employing content analysis, process tracing and the main approaches to treaty interpretation, it examines member states’ country reports submitted under the 1373 process and explores the factors that have enabled, as well as constrained, the progressive ‘humanization’ of the UNSC's counter-terrorist discourse.