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Stephan Klasen

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Stephan Klasen

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Stephan Klasen

This impressive research review discusses the most important contributions by some of the leading scholars in the field of poverty measurement. It analyses what constitutes poverty and associated poverty measures, as well as conceptual and empirical approaches to set poverty lines for both national and international settings. The papers discussed in this research review also discuss national and international income poverty measures, multidimensional poverty indices, and ways to capture poverty dynamics.
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Stephan Klasen

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Nanak Kakwani and Hyun Hwa Son

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Nanak Kakwani and Hyun Hwa Son

This research review offers an insight to some of the most important questions economists and policymakers have been grappling over. A substantial amount of research has been carried out using cross-country regression models, resulting in a better and improved understanding of the linkage between economic growth and poverty reduction. The literature on cross-country regressions, however, has led to conflicting conclusions. Reconciling diverging messages makes it difficult to accurately inform policy-making. Based on a selection of influential papers, this volume provides a critical review of the literature. Scholars who envision a world free of extreme poverty will find this analysis particularly valuable.
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Nanak Kakwani and Hyun Hwa Son

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Nanak Kakwani and Hyun Hwa Son

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Mariateresa Ciommi

The chapter embraces the definition of diversity which refers to the composition of a society, namely to economic, cultural and physical differences among individuals and groups within a society, due to differences in race, language, ethnicity, nationality and gender, to mention a few. This chapter surveys the empirical literature on social fractionalization and diversity, focusing on two aspects. The first main section of the chapter is devoted to the choice of the variable used to identify groups and to the associated datasets. The second main section reviews studies that have investigated the impacts of social fractionalization and diversity on a number of socioeconomic variables, such as growth, development, quality of institutions, rise of conflict and wages.

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Mariateresa Ciommi, Ernesto Savaglio and Stefano Vannucci

Over the last decade, the assessment and measurement of diversity has increasingly become an object of interest for economists and other social scientists. The concept of diversity can be applied to a wide variety of contexts, spanning from biodiversity and conservation policies to socioeconomic diversity. The first main section of this chapter is devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of diversity. Alternative taxonomies proposed in the existing literature are discussed and the axiomatic approach to the analysis of diversity is illustrated. The second main section of the chapter is devoted to the measurement of fractionalization, namely to the analysis of diversity when the population is partitioned according to social characteristics, such as language, religion or nationality. The most relevant fractionalization indices are presented, highlighting the links with other disciplines such as ecology, biology and sociology.