This handbook provides an expansive and multi-disciplinary interrogation of the spaces and places of law, advancing cutting-edge insights as to the numerous intersections of space, place and law in our lives. We engage relationally in a material world - of space and place - within which we are inter-dependent and reliant, and governed by laws in a dynamic process rarely linear and never fixed. This collection combines contributions from around the world focusing on methodology, embodied experience, legal pluralism, conflict and resistance, non-human and place agency, and covering cross-cutting themes including social (in)equality and environmental justice, sustainability, urban development, Indigenous legal systems, colonialism and property law. A diversity of places and spaces are represented, spanning Australia, Bolivia, Canada, China, France, Fiji, India, Kiribati, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Scholars, students and practitioners will find this a valuable compendium of the breadth and strength of scholarship in space, place and law.
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John D. Graham
This Handbook of Public Transport Research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research in a growing field: the field of research on urban public transport. The quantity of public transport related research papers has doubled in the last nine years. Why? For two reasons. First, researchers have been increasingly inspired by the topic. It is an applied and practical topic affecting the quality of life of billions of people. It is also a field with significant challenges, seeking new and original solutions. These challenges range from the difficult interface of engineering, operations and human perceptions in user satisfaction and performance management, to the tricky balance between prudent financial management, operations planning and the social access goals making subsidies essential. These challenges require a multi-disciplinary perspective to wicked problems in Engineering, Planning, Psychology and Design, which is why the field is intellectually as well as tactically challenging. The foundation of many of these challenges is the conflicting congestion and environmental relief, and the social equity objectives that justify public transport in cities.
Tao Liu and Avishai (Avi) Ceder
In this chapter we refer to the public transport (PT) operations planning process of a fixed-route system such as bus, rail and passenger ferries. This process commonly includes four basic components, divided into three different levels and usually performed in sequence: (1) network design; (2) timetable development; (3) vehicle scheduling; and (4) crew scheduling and rostering. The framework of this process is shown in Figure 18.1. It is preferable that all four activities be planned simultaneously in order to exploit system capability to the greatest extent and maximize system productivity and efficiency (Ceder 2016). However, since this integrated planning process is extremely cumbersome and complex, especially for medium and large-scale PT agencies, separated treatment is required for each component, with the outcome of one fed as an input into the next component. From the perspective of PT agencies, the highest cost items in the budget are vehicle capital and operating costs, driver wages and fringe benefits. Therefore, it is not surprising to learn that most of the commercially available PT scheduling software packages concentrate primarily on vehicle and crew scheduling activities. In the last fifty years, a considerable amount of effort has been invested in the computerization of the above four components in order to provide more efficient, controllable and responsive PT services. This chapter focuses on the third PT operations-planning component: vehicle scheduling, which is one of the problems at the operational-planning level. The PT vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) refers to the problem of determining the optimal allocation of vehicles to carry out all the trips of a given timetable. A chain of trips is assigned to each vehicle, although some of them may be deadheading (DH) or empty trips in order to attain optimality. The assignment of vehicle chains to garages should be determined in an efficient manner. The major objective of the PT VSP is to minimize fleet size or, correspondingly, to minimize the total cost comprised of fixed costs (acquisition, salaries, administration, etc.) and variable costs (maintenance, fuels, supplies, etc.). The number of feasible solutions to this problem is extremely high, especially in the case of multiple depots.
Nils Grashof, Dirk Fornahl and Julius Becker
Nils Grashof and Thomas Brenner
Spurred by their outstanding economic opportunities, radical innovations, emerging from the recombination of former unconnected knowledge, have received increasing attention by policy makers and researchers alike. To support innovations in general, policy makers have mainly focussed on fostering the interaction within regional clusters, thereby assuming that localisation externalities only function efficiently on short geographical distances. By implementing cross-cluster as well as internationalisation measures, only recently efforts were undertaken to move beyond the geographical boundaries of clusters. While the importance of extra-local knowledge on innovativeness in general has already been highlighted, it remains unclear whether this holds also true for innovations that are rather radical in nature. Thus, we lack knowledge about which type of relationship is particularly promoting the emergence of radical innovations in regional clusters. In order to address this research gap empirically, we apply a quantitative approach on the firm-level and combine several data sources (e.g. AMADEUS, PATSTAT, German subsidy catalogue). Our results provide evidence for the stimulating effect of cluster external relationships as well as for the assumed benefits of cross-cluster relationships. By further differentiating the types of relationships according to the geographical and thematic characteristics, it can for instance be additionally determined that firms having cross-cluster relationships with thematically and regional different partners are most likely to create radical innovations. Our findings emphasize the promising potential of cross-cluster initiatives and the need to adjust the composition of these relationships according to different thematic and geographic backgrounds of the corresponding collaboration partners.
Finally Correia closes the handbook with the maps that accompany the 28 chapters which demonstrate the effect of borders on people’s daily and ritual life, in their life transitions and travels, in their aspirations for a better life and in their experience of violence and forms of compassion. They fundamentally show the interactions between migrants and borders (here represented by policies, politics, law enforcement agencies, society) in different areas of the world and between and in different countries and regions: USA, Canada, Mexico, South America, Europe, North and Central Africa and Asia. The maps created in this book followed a non-traditional format. Still, they are enough accurate for one easily understand where each chapter takes place. The style used was drawn from the abstract and fragments pieces from geography that usually are in our mind when we think about countries and world´s borders.
Luis Iturra Valenzuela
In the revival area of border studies of a Latin-American tripartite border, Iturra Valenzuela focus on Chile´s extreme Northern region, where borders have historically been highlighted by the migratory circularity between inhabitants of the surrounding countries. However, the current Colombian, Haitian and Venezuelan migration flow has caught the attention of social scientists and politicians). He details the 2018 Plan Frontera Segura. This logic of selection of trade and migration flows, between what is desired and the unwanted is framed in the Foucaultian terms of a neoliberal governmentality and more precisely in an exercise of biopolitics where there is a migratory population desired and other unwanted . He underlines how the Tacna-Arica urban complex operates as an integration space but necessarily produces an asymmetry allowing, on the one hand the exploitation of the Peruvian migrant who inserts himself to work in the agricultural world of Arica, and on the other, making public the discourses of President Pi-era highlighting bilateral trade relations and promoting humanitarian aid for countries in conflict, but in turn denying the entry of poor Venezuelans in order to protect the border.
José Miguel Nieto Olivar, Flávia Melo and Marco Tobón
Following on the regional scale focus we focus then in the Amazonas, through a very interesting chapter, both conceptually (with a highly complex frame) and empirically.It is composed by different types of research conducted by Tobon, Melo and Nieto Olivar, in a region divided betweenBrazil, Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela in the Northwest Amazon. Described within the vertices of a quadrangle of destruction that connects four cities of the Brazilian Amazon: Novo Progresso and Altamira in the state of Pará, and São Gabriel da Cachoeira and Tabatinga in the state of Amazonas. They research on managing human (and non-human) insecurity and violence as a form of production, transformation, and governance in one of the most important transborder regions on the planet, in the Amazonian frontier, observed as a plural object being disputed by capitalist extractive forces. The contextual debates are: the Anthropocene and Cosmopolitics , articulating three axes through which the politics of violence, control, production, and destruction gain expression. These small Brazilian cities and the people who inhabit them have had their lives traversed by highly predatory “national defense”, “regional development”, “social”, and “civilizational” policies based on the reckless exploitation of the much coveted Amazonian “natural wealth” and upon the “need” to guarantee national sovereignty. The necropolitical devices upon which this destruction is conducted also marks bodies, especially those of indigenous people, youth, and women, such as the hungry and drunken Hupd’ah bodies scattered in the camps of the “Beiradão”, or the abused and abandoned bodies of indigenous girls in the downtown of São Gabriel da Cachoeira. From the Venezuelan border to the Peruvian-Colombian border, blood and smoke mingle with cocaine and the device of violence as a form of government materializes in militarized bodies that act together, extensively and intensively, on the territories of the upper Rio Solimões combating the “violence” of international drug trafficking with the “violence” of militarized forces.
Alfredo Gomes Dias and Jorge Macaísta Malheiros
We move again to the regional focus, this time towards Southeast Asia with the chapter on Macau (by Gomes Dias and Malheiros). The focus is put on the old colonial Portuguese territory within a historical perspective (from 1999). From its origins in the mid-16th century to the founding of the Macao Special Administrative Region (MSAR) in 1999, the definition of the land and sea boundaries of Macao has always been an issue, assuming a character that can be analysed in different dimensions. From the diplomatic point of view, the question of the boundaries of Macao remained a matter of dispute. In its political dimension, the option assumed was to maintain the status quo defined in the late nineteenth century as a way of preserving the economic and socio-cultural characteristics of the City. At the social level, it has maintained its role as a port of entry and passage for various migratory movements, including not only commuting between Mainland China and Macao, but also the reception of refugees, Portuguese and Chinese, a particularly relevant phenomenon in the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the chapter of the “Macau case”, in its historical perspective, makes it possible to understand today's reality, as a region with a special administrative status, preserving border control mechanisms and flexibility of labour mobility in a specific political and economic context, of progressive integration into the People's Republic of China.