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Women in charge: social capital of female entrepreneurs in the neighbourhood and beyond

Towards an Understanding of the Economies of Neighbourhoods and Communities

Beate Volker

It is widely acknowledged that woman’s networks and their social capital considerably differ from men’s. Given that social capital is an important resource for getting ahead in society it is important to understand these differences. Do women and men create different forms of social capital and are there differences in the benefits of social capital? Furthermore, what is the role of the neighbourhood where the business is located; what are the benefits of local social ties and of the macro-level social capital for these businesses? These questions are addressed in order to determine whether gender differences impact the way entrepreneurs run their business. Two opposing arguments are employed: firstly, given the social position of women in society – female entrepreneurs are expected to focus more on family and less on instrumental relationships than men, regardless of their education and labour market activity. The second and opposing argument is that women who design and run a business are acting beyond traditional gender roles. Data from a 2014 survey of entrepreneurs in the Netherlands (SSNE) are used for the analysis. Results show that men and women differ in their number of weaker ties. In addition, while women’s businesses benefit from a neighbourhood’s social capital, that is, macro-level social capital, men’s seem to benefit in particular from access to many diverse positions in the neighbourhood and beyond and men’s beneficial ties are located at the micro level.

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Henry Rothstein and Anne-Laure Beaussier

This chapter explains how the inevitable trade-offs between risk and cost in occupational health and safety (OHS) regulation are managed across EU member states. While trade-offs are explicitly sanctioned in UK law with a risk-based regulatory strategy, many continental countries mandate ambitious goals of safety. This contrast in statutory goals appears to reflect cleavages identified in the risk regulation literature between European precaution and Anglo-Saxon neoliberal risk-taking, as well as in the Varieties of Capitalism literature which suggests that workers are better protected in coordinated than in liberal market economies. However, that claim is challenged through a detailed analysis of OHS regimes in the UK and France, which shows that a narrow focus on headline regulatory goals misses how each country makes cost–benefit trade-offs on safety. In particular, the chapter shows how the nature and outcome of those trade-offs substantially vary according to the degree of coupling between regulation and welfare regimes, and national traditions of common and civil law. As such, the chapter offers a novel explanation for risk regulation and governance variety that emphasizes deep institutional differences among welfare states in the organization of the political economy and their philosophies of regulation. While risk-based rationalization may count as a universal strategy to shape societal outcomes intentionally despite the limits of contemporary governance, our findings evidence stark institutional and ideational limits of such novel regulatory approaches. The empirical identification of these diffusion limits also reflects that what is and is not “shapeable”, and how it continues to differ across settings.

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Per Kristensson, Herbjørn Nysveen and Helge Thorbjørnsen

The chapter focuses on why customers do and do not switch. Switching is when a customer leaves a service provider for another one. The research presented looks at how customers perceive equity-related aspects, such as economic fairness, on the one hand, and more psychological determinants, such as cognitive and affective aspects, on the other hand. A review of the literature shows why customers sometimes switch and highlights the need to identify and understand how barriers and triggers affect them in this sense. By understanding barriers and triggers, switching processes are either facilitated or stifled and thus affect the likelihood of a customer adopting a new service innovation or not.

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The White and Taft Courts, 1911–30

Two Centuries of Judicial Review on Trial

Leslie F. Goldstein

Describes shift for black American from the abysmal Fuller Court to the moderately protective White Court (1911–21). Protection endured through the Taft Court years (1921–30). Analyzes potential causes; zeroes in on combination of a decade of northern mob violence against blacks at beginning of 1900s and the intense experience for the Supreme Court of U.S. v. Shipp II (1909) trial, where Court for the only time in its history tried criminals on original jurisdiction. The crime was contempt of [the Supreme] court in the form of lynch mob murder led by sheriff after murder victim’s appeal was accepted to be heard at Supreme Court. Elected branches treated Asians worse than ever, and the Court mainly protected them against administrative or state-level rights violations. In 1916 Court overruled Heff (1905) mandate that once they were citizens, Indians had rights equal to whites. Congress in 1924 gave U.S. citizenship to all Indians. KEYWORDS U.S. v. Nice (1916) Buchanan v. Warley (1917) Asian Barred Zones Act Peonage Moore v. Dempsey (1923) Nixon v. Herndon (1927)

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Thomas David DuBois

This chapter examines the roots of public welfare in China, spanning the crucial 100 years before the 1949 founding of the People’s Republic, and highlighting the political importance of welfare provision across a range of very different Chinese regimes. Rather than attempting to map the contemporary Western understanding of welfare onto history, it presents Chinese ideas and institutions on their own terms. During the late nineteenth century, well-established traditions of State and private charity provision began to transform in the face of new pressures and opportunities, including the arrival of Christian missionary institutions. In the early twentieth century, China was divided into a number of regimes, including the Republic of China, the Communist-held areas and the Japanese client regime in Manchuria. This political fragmentation caused the welfare tradition to diversify into a number of competing ideologies and strategies. The transformation of welfare provision during this century was driven by a number of interrelated processes: the growing influence of foreign actors and institutions; the formation of legal and legislative frameworks for the rights and responsibilities of welfare providers; and the shift in balance between private and State initiative, and between disaster relief and longer-term programmes of economic development. This history continues to tangibly shape contemporary political and social attitudes towards welfare provision.

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Xavier Groussot, Gunnar Thor Pétursson and Justin Pierce

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Water-footprint PPMs, the GATT and the TBT Agreement

Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water

Fitzgerald Temmerman

International virtual water trade is vital for countries with limited (fresh) water resources, since the water which is used abroad in the agricultural and industrial production process, is virtually imported and thus ‘saved’ domestically. In times of climate change and global warming the question also emerges whether it would not be useful to globally compare products on the amount of water which is used in their production process, and allow for a different treatment under the GATT and TBT agreements. On the one hand, more fresh water could be saved on the global level. On the other hand, the doomsday scenario of hidden protectionism lurks around the corner. In this new context of ‘water-footprint PPMs’, the ‘like products’ debate prominently re-emerges. Before entering a fundamental water-footprint PPMs’ critique, an analysis is made of the most relevant GATT and TBT case law. KEYWORDS: Virtual water – trade – water footprint – PPM – like products – GATT

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Water-footprint labelling schemes and the TBT Agreement

Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water

Fitzgerald Temmerman

The amount of water which is used during the production process of a particular agricultural or industrial product clearly constitutes highly interesting labelling information. Moreover, the percentage of rainwater used (the green water footprint); the percentage of groundwater used (the blue water footprint); and the percentage of already polluted water used (the grey water footprint), can also be calculated and displayed. In the meantime, several corporations already closely monitor the water footprint of their products. ISO recently issued international water-footprint standards, on the basis of which the TBT Agreement could guarantee a levelled playing field. Mandatory (governmental) labelling provisions are thereby treated more stringently. The most recent Tuna – Dolphin case, however, clearly demonstrated that is not always an easy task to determine whether a labelling scheme is mandatory or not. KEYWORDS: Virtual water – water footprint – labelling – consumer – ISO – TBT

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Caroline McCracken-Flesher

In the third chapter, McCracken-Flesher examines the reception and afterlife of the persona and works of the iconic Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. In addition to helping to shape the romantic novel genre, Scott was deeply enmeshed in Scottish national life and history. Through his work—both artistic and scholarly—Scott became what McCracken-Flesher calls a “transcendent authority” of Scottish history and identity at once engaged with and deliberately removed from the social and religious conflicts of his time.

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Vulnerability and adaptability: post-crisis resilience of SMEs in Denmark

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Christian Kjær Monsson

The chapter examines different perspectives on resilience in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are often argued to be sensitive to shocks, but have likewise been suggested to be a source of economic resilience owing to their flexibility and their ability to change after a shock. The chapter argues that one must distinguish between the ability of SMEs to resist to external shocks and the ability of SMEs to recover from such shocks. These two abilities are labelled as the vulnerability and adaptability of SMEs. Both abilities can be managed through strategic and operational actions, but SMEs face several trade-offs, as they must balance concerns over short-term profits with the need for robustness and flexibility as well as innovation and learning. The chapter further includes an analysis of a sample of Danish SMEs in the period following the recession of 2009. The analysis demonstrates that, while SMEs may be vulnerable, many SMEs are also able to recover from a major shock to their economy. It is thus suggested that the vulnerability of SMEs to shocks should not be seen by policymakers as a sign of permanent decline. Recovery and renewed growth may follow at a later stage.