In recent years, fashion design has been treated as a key element of the cultural and creative industries (CCIs), and the idea of the ‘fashion city’ has emerged as a potential strategy for the revamping of cities. This chapter argues that there is not a singular model of the ‘fashion city’, and that treating fashion simply as a CCI underplays its complexity. It proposes an analytical framework for thinking about fashion’s relationship with cities. The chapter highlights the different trajectories of ‘fashion’s world cities’, specifically Paris, New York, Milan and London, and identifies the existence of two broad tendencies within strategies to develop ‘second-tier cities’ of fashion like Auckland, Toronto and Antwerp. The suggested framework highlights the different positions that fashion plays in urban economies, associated with manufacturing, design and symbolic production and the various forms of creativity associated with different forms of fashion city.
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Patrizia Casadei and David Gilbert
Luciana Lazzeretti, Francesco Capone and Niccolò Innocenti
This chapter has a twofold objective. First, it aims to contribute to addressing the fragmentation of the literature on the creative economy, and second, to lay the foundation for an economics of creative industries. Following a bibliometric approach, the authors analyse all publications collected from the ISI Web of Science database, starting from 1998 and ending in 2016. Through the analysis of nearly 1600 publications, they study the evolution of creative economy research (CER). They apply a co-citation analysis developed using social network analysis, thereby exploring the ‘founders’ and ‘disseminators’ of cultural and creative industries (CCIs). Results underline that CCIs are not only the major topic in CER research, but this trend has become stronger in the last few years. In addition, evidence of this work strongly confirms the relevance of CCIs in the contemporary economy. This importance can only be expected to grow in the future. This last result supports the hypothesis concerning the foundation of an economics of creative industries.
Ruth Rentschler, Kim Lehman and Ian Fillis
This chapter examines a private entrepreneur and his art museum as a single deep, rich case study. Occasionally, new art museums emerge in small regional cities that contribute to economic and social development. Using the entrepreneurship theory of effectuation, with biographical research methods, interviews, observations and content analysis, the authors provide a lens on how one man’s vision has changed opportunities in a rust-bucket city and state, boosting jobs and tourism and changing the urban environment. They analyse how the complex and paradoxical attractions of a distinctive museum succeeded, which have been little investigated from the perspective of its broader role in stimulating a small regional city’s rise as an emerging creative city. Theoretically, the chapter makes a contribution by applying entrepreneurship theory through an entrepreneurial marketing and effectuation lens, demonstrating how unpredictable products in a new venture process under conditions of uncertainty provided a unique difference and unexpected success in the arts and cultural sector.
Patrick Cohendet and Laurent Simon
In this chapter, the authors analyse Ubisoft’s Montreal ecosystem. They show how the Ubisoft studio is the central actor that orchestrated a unique ecosystem in videogames through the building of a rich ‘middleground’, conceived as a set of intermediary platforms and devices that connect and integrate formal organisations and informal collectives. They argue that the success of the development of the Ubisoft studio and of the dynamism of the city in the domain of videogames is due to the progressive building by the main parties in this field of such a middleground that provides the essential qualities of an ecosystem: generative dynamism, resilience and power of attraction.
Marilena Vecco and Andrej Srakar
This chapter models ‘entrepreneurial regimes’ for cultural entrepreneurship using symbolic data. From the Amadeus database the authors select a sample of firms active in the cultural and creative sectors in Europe to verify to what extent entrepreneurial activities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries differ from the other old European countries. Analysing several entrepreneurial (firm-level), institutional and macroeconomic distributional variables, and symbolic data clustering algorithms, they transform the dataset into a set of symbolic variables. They extract four main temporally robust clusters and provide their interpretations. Cultural and creative entrepreneurship in CEE countries perform differently compared to other European countries and those countries can be separated into two clusters, based largely on the level of development. Furthermore, Estonia and Slovenia emerge as clear outliers being closer to Western European countries. The authors conclude by reflecting on the findings for future research in the area.
Jessica D. Giusti and Fernando G. Alberti
In this chapter the authors explore the correlation between knowledge brokerage and creativity in a collaborative online innovation network of fashion makers, named Openwear. The fashion industry has recently benefited from co-design and co-creation practices that are accelerated by online platforms of collaboration. The authors selected two knowledge brokerage characteristics: rotating leadership that measures the degree to which, over time, the members in a team vary in how ‘central’ they are to the team’s communications; and rotating contribution that measures the degree to which, over time, actors in a team vary in how much they transmit knowledge versus receive knowledge. Their findings indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between rotating leadership and creativity as well as between rotating contribution and creativity, confirming the general view that creative work requires innovation and breaking known patterns of thought and behaviour through a continuous rotation in brokerage roles and contributions.
Luciano Lazzeretti and Marilena Vecco
Jaime Alberto Ruiz-Gutiérrez and Mónica Muñoz-Vela
This chapter provides a description of a top-down process by which the arts and culture sector has been strengthened and legitimised in Colombia, a Latin American middle income country. The central argument of the chapter turns around the structural changes made to the country’s institutions as the result of the promulgation of the Constitution in 1991, introducing the cultural dimension in the definition of the national identity. Historically, Colombia has been marked by significant inequalities, reflected in the existence of two or more different ‘realities’ in the society, with contrasting forms of logic and own dynamics of development. This duality shapes the development of ‘industrial’ activities within the field of arts and cultural. The chapter concludes by using statistical information to describe the evolution of these subsectors, illustrating the way in which their development has, up to now, contributed to generate more social than economic value.
Leonardo Mazzoni and Luciana Lazzeretti
The aim of this chapter is to explore the literature on creative entrepreneurship under the lens of the creative economy approach and of local economic development. The study was carried out in two phases: first, the main definitions of creative entrepreneurship and its declinations are reviewed; second, a first bibliometric analysis is conducted on the ISI Web of Science database for the period 1998–2016, and around 300 publications are selected. Even with some limitations, the results of the research highlight how the topic has consistently grown and taken up a multidisciplinary character in recent years, although it remains a niche theme but with high potential for development. We found that the creative dimension is overwhelmingly entering the debate, beside the cultural sphere. However, the issue on the definition of creative entrepreneurship remains open.
Rafael Boix Domènech, Luciana Lazzeretti and Daniel Sánchez Serra
This work explores the relationship between the specialization in creative industries and the entrepreneurship rates and characteristics in a large sample of developing and developed countries. There is partial evidence about the positive effects of creativity on entrepreneurship in developed countries, although this relationship has hardly been studied for developing countries, and the results for both types of countries have not been compared. The current analysis is possible due to the elaboration of a new database crossing registers from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), Eurostat, World Bank, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Orbis and country reports, and includes 81 countries covering Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Oceania. Culture-based and intellectual property-based definitions of the creative industries are used in order to assess whether the effects on entrepreneurship are due to core creative competences or to the effect of the enhanced creative system. This offers a new perspective on the indirect effects of creative industries in the whole economy through entrepreneurship.