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Open access

Michael Harvey

Open access

Steven P. Dandaneau

How will land-grant universities fulfill their democratic mission in an era of declining public support? A case study of Milton S. Eisenhower's presidency of Kansas State College (1943–1950) explores the entrenched ideological tensions with which land-grant university leaders must still contend, and through historical analysis illustrates key elements in their past successful navigation. Recognized today more often for his fraternal relationship to the 34th President of the United States, this paper argues that Milton Eisenhower, four times a university president and a long-time public servant in his own right, is a leader from whom much can be learned. It is argued, furthermore, that today's public higher-education leaders face challenges similar to those faced by Eisenhower, the resolution of which will determine whether the democratic heritage articulated in the Morrill Act of 1862 is preserved or abandoned.

Open access

Nathan Harter

Prospective leaders are frequently advised to know themselves. Such knowledge takes the form of an image, requiring the use of the imagination to create an identity based on some kind of self-concept. This process of looking inward is incomplete without also gaining critical distance from the self. Three prominent philosophers had offered heuristics to imagine oneself as somebody else. Plato asked, for example: what if you were no one – literally anonymous? How would that alter your perspective? Immanuel Kant suggested that you consider yourself and your situation from everyone's point of view and not just your own. And John Rawls asked, in regards to constituting a group or organization or even something so simple as a contract: what if you might be anyone, especially the least advantaged? Would the arrangement you presently favor seem fair to anyone? By adopting these heuristics and getting outside of one's self, a leader might avoid typical ethical failings and actually gain a more authentic self-concept.

Open access

Jeffrey L. McClellan

As there is not much in the academic literature of leadership that explores the historical and foundational roots of leadership culture within specific countries, this paper seeks to address this void. It does so by providing a conceptual model for exploring leadership cultural foundations by examining the motives, goals, and means of influence of leaders through an interdisciplinary review of the literature on social life in precolonial Ecuador. It then applies this model to understanding leadership in the precolonial societies of modern day Ecuador. In doing so, this article summarizes what is known about leadership within these precolonial societies, at the time just prior to the arrival of the Inca and the Spanish, in order to propose a model of precolonial indigenous leadership in Ecuador.

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Chapter 1 briefly reviews the concept of a living wage, shows that it has a long and distinguished history and has had a recent upsurge in interest and acceptance from governments, multinational companies, unions and NGOs. It is shown that there is a general consensus on its definition, and the living wage definition agreed on by the organizations that are partners in the Global Living Wage Coalition is presented. Chapter 1 discusses why a new methodology is needed to measure living wages around the world, gives an overview of the principles behind the Anker methodology for estimating a living wage, discusses the extensive experience in using the Anker methodology in living wage studies in urban and rural locations around the world, indicates why some subjectivity is not an obstacle to economic concepts, and how a living wage differs from minimum wage. This chapter points out that living wage studies are designed not only to estimate a living wage, but also to put that estimate into context as a catalyst to further action.

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

It is important to put living wage estimates into context by comparing them with other wage and economic indicators as well as indicating recent trends in real wages. Chapter 17 describes two recommended approaches to providing a contextual backdrop for a living wage estimate. One approach illustrates in a wage ladder figure the size of gaps between prevailing wages in an industry or establishment and a living wage and other wage indicators such as poverty line wages, and average wages. Recommendations for reference points to use in a wage ladder are provided, along with examples of wage ladders from previous living wage studies. The second recommended approach is to use a series of graphs to display how real wages have changed over time in local currency and in US dollars as well as compared with other economic indicators such as minimum wages and labor productivity. Examples of such graphs from previous living wage studies are provided.