Browse by title

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 137 items

  • Open access x
Clear All
Open access

James Burrows, Rebecca Newman, Jerry Genser and Jeffrey Plewes

This chapter focuses on a key test of rational choice in CV studies: do estimates of WTP for environmental amenities derived from split-sample (external) tests in CV studies increase as the amount of the good (or the number of goods) increases (i.e., as scope increases), and, if so, are the WTP estimates “adequately” responsive to scope? For the 111 studies of environmental non-use and mixed use/non-use environmental amenities in our study, after fractional allocation of mixed results and appropriate weighting of studies based on common underlying data, more studies fail (54 percent of the total) than pass (46 percent). Contrary to expectations, the percentage of studies failing scope has increased over time: over the 1987–2001 period, 49 percent of the studies failed a scope test vs 59 percent for the 2001–2016 period. We also find that even the scope tests that “pass” often do not exhibit “adequate” scope sensitivity. For the 21 studies that lend themselves to appropriate quantitative analysis, nine have scope elasticities less than 0.10 and 12 have scope elasticities less than 0.2; only three have scope elasticities above 0.5. The high frequency of no or limited scope elasticities documented in this study suggests that warm glow is an important element of measured WTP for non-use environmental amenities.

Open access

Edited by Daniel McFadden and Kenneth Train

Open access

Edited by Daniel McFadden and Kenneth Train

Contingent valuation is a survey-based procedure that attempts to estimate how much households are willing to pay for specific programs that improve the environment or prevent environmental degradation. For decades, the method has been the center of debate regarding its reliability: does it really measure the value that people place on environmental changes? Bringing together leading voices in the field, this timely book tells a unified story about the interrelated features of contingent valuation and how those features affect its reliability. Through empirical analysis and review of past studies, the authors identify important deficiencies in the procedure, raising questions about the technique’s continued use.
Open access

Kelley Myers, Doug MacNair, Ted Tomasi and Jude Schneider

Open access

William Desvousges, Kristy Mathews and Kenneth Train

Open access

Edited by Daniel McFadden and Kenneth Train

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Up to this point, this manual has discussed how much disposable income a reference size family needs to be able to afford a basic but decent standard of living. However, almost all countries have statutory deductions from pay that need to be taken into account to ensure that workers have sufficient take home pay. Chapter 14 discusses various statutory deductions from pay such as income tax, social security, worker contributions to national health schemes, etc. and indicates how to take them into account in estimating a living wage. The chapter distinguishes between voluntary deductions from pay such as Christmas savings funds (which is treated as ordinary expenditure), personal deductions from pay which apply to only some individuals such as loan repayment or alimony (which are also treated as ordinary expenditure), and statutory deductions from pay such as for taxes or social security paid by all workers. Statutory deductions from pay are taken into consideration in the calculation of a living wage estimate in the Anker methodology. This is important because statutory deductions from pay can be considerable even in poor countries and for workers with low wages. Since statutory deductions vary from country to country and sometimes even between locations within countries, calculating the amount of statutory deductions needs to be location-specific. A hypothetical example is provided of how this calculation should be made in a country with a fairly simple tax code.

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

The Anker methodology is intended to produce more than just a number. It is intended to be used as a catalyst for action. To that end, a living wage report using the Anker methodology should describe each step in the estimation process in a clear and transparent way, so that workers, employers, unions, the value chain, the public, researchers, governments and NGOs are able to understand what goes into estimating a living wage in the Anker methodology. Chapter 18 provides an annotated outline of what should be included in a living wage report as a standard guide for writing up the results of a living wage study.