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Shirley V. Scott and Charlotte Ku

The United Nations Security Council has over time broadened its understanding of what constitutes a threat to international peace and security and has developed new tools and processes to respond to those threats. This chapter suggests that discussion of whether it would be legitimate for the Council to address climate change may well shift to that of how the Council can legitimately avoid making any serious contribution to addressing climate change adaptation, or even mitigation. In decades ahead, physical tipping points may be accompanied by societal and governance tipping points. Given the Council’s role as the ‘go-to’ international institution for security crises of global significance, it is appropriate to consider what positive, constructive contributions the Council could make, ranging from simple awareness raising to making full use of its Chapter VII powers.

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Edited by Shirley V. Scott and Charlotte Ku

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Factors that influence tax systems

Factors that Shape the Demand and Supply of Taxes

Vito Tanzi

Summary: Tax systems are similar to living organisms, which depend on the ecology of the areas where they exist. Various factors discussed in this book determine the ecology relevant to tax systems. Tax systems that do not adjust to that ecology cannot be successful.

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Defining eco-innovations: characteristics, typologies and socioeconomic approaches

The Financial Constraints of Eco-Innovation Companies

Edgardo Sica

‘Eco-Innovations’ (EIs) are a type of innovations that may contribute to reduce the environmental burden and to deal with specific problematic areas, such as greenhouse effects, loss of biodiversity, sustainable use of natural resources and so on. However, despite their relevance, EIs still represent a vague and unclear concept. The present chapter firstly clarifies the true meaning of EIs, by defining their characteristics and typologies. Then, it explores and contextualises roles and functions of EIs for sustainability in the framework of two contrasting approaches, namely the more traditional neoclassical literature on innovations and the new evolutionary studies on the techno-paradigm shifts.

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Philip Schlesinger

Setting the scene, the idea of the ‘creative economy’ is critically located in both the policy and academic literatures. Next, the European Union’s (EU) shifting role in cultural policy is discussed, with particular reference to the Creative Europe programme. Then, the illuminating history of regulatory policy on ‘borderless television’ is considered along with the balance of international audiovisual trade with the US. This is the context for an analysis of the planned Digital Single Market and its implications. The conclusion notes the continuing ambiguity of relations between culture and economy in the EU as these now play out in the digital era.

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Francis Cheneval and Mónica Ferrín

This chapter compares the institutional setting and integration processes in Switzerland and the European Union (EU). It shows that EU integration is trying to achieve more political integration and the accommodation of a much higher degree of diversity in much less time than has ever been the case in Switzerland. Direct democracy has acted as a federator in the Swiss context. There has been a slow and iterative process of adaptation of structurally similar institutions of direct democracy at all levels (communal, cantonal, federal) roughly between 1830 and 1891. The EU is only incipiently in a process of introducing direct democracy. Mobility of residence, the one element on which the EU has based the construction of EU citizenship and identity, has not been actively facilitated and is implicitly discouraged in Switzerland, formal freedom of movement notwithstanding.

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Series preface

Lessons for the EU

Edited by Francis Cheneval and Mónica Ferrin

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Series preface

Entitlements and Impediments to Accessing Welfare

Edited by Frans Pennings and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

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Review of questions

Perspectives for Sustainable Corporate Governance

Catherine Malecki

The notion of sustainable development has emerged as the result of a realisation among philosophers of nature and earth summit delegates of the need to protect the planet at global level. Social ecology, which links ecology and society as a whole with “grow or die” challenges, can be contrasted with liberal ecology. The notion of the right to a healthy environment and environmental human rights (such as the universal right to clean drinking water) have forced companies to be stakeholders in sustainable development and, more specifically, in CSR. Non-financial reporting by companies plays an important role. The quality and accessibility of the information provided are key requirements for good corporate governance. Since 2001, the EU has been stressing the importance of such reporting, which must be readily accessible to all stakeholders and tie in with developments in corporate governance.

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G. Honor Fagan and Ronaldo Munck