Catharine A. MacKinnon
Paul Oslington, Paul S. Williams and Mary Hirschfeld
Beyond Accession in Central and Eastern Europe
Agnes Batory, Andrew Cartwright and Diane Stone
In this introductory chapter to the volume, the authors examine on the one hand the concepts of policy transfer and policy diffusion and, on the other, the concept of policy failure and success within the general context of Europeanization in Central and Eastern Europe. They invite contributors to address two main sets of questions: To what degree was the policy/institution/idea under consideration transferred intact or modified? And did the resulting policy or institution come to be viewed as a success or failure, or somewhere in between? The chapters that follow highlight that policy ‘transfer’ processes are often non-linear and fuzzy and sometimes counter-intuitive, and point to the central importance of the views, interests and constellations of the domestic actors that filter and interpret international influences. In this sense, the CEE experience in the years since accession is as much about active and sometimes strategic policy imports and policy distortion and perhaps less about simple receipt and incorporation of external models.
History, Challenges and Opportunities
Chapter 1 provides an overview of the theories that have influenced the development of the droit d’auteur and the copyright models through the centuries. They are classified into two groups – normative and conceptual – to emphasize their diverse inspirations and goals. Normative theories, rooted in philosophy and economics, justify the protection of creative works, set the objectives of copyright, and inspire the drafting and teleological interpretations of copyright rules. Conceptual theories guide the interpretation of copyright law by systematizing existing regulations through abstract doctrines, either analytical or positive-systematic. Rather than offering a plain account of their content, the chapter underlines their contribution or opposition to the qualification of copyright as property right, and clarifies the meaning and implications they carry in the context of copyright propertization.
A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research
Atsede T. Hailemariam and Brigitte Kroon
Atsede T. Hailemariam and Brigitte Kroon explore the meaning of success for female Ethiopian entrepreneurs. Taking a contextually embedded approach using qualitative data and considering structural, familial and cultural constraints, the authors challenge the notion of the underperformance of women entrepreneurs by highlighting how various female entrepreneurs define success. They explain that women entrepreneurs evaluate success in business both in financial and non-financial terms. While some women entrepreneurs define success as achieving self-fulfilment and in terms of their contribution to society and family, others emphasize communal and religious values in their definition of success. It tends to be the young, educated females and those who have experience and operate more than one business or engage in male-dominated sectors who define their success in terms of profit and growth. The implication for policy-makers relates to the need to pay more attention to the heterogeneity of women entrepreneurs and to non-financial measures of performance as they design policy and support programs to create an entrepreneurial ecosystem that is conducive to entrepreneurship.
V. Spike Peterson
This chapter explores how feminist International Political Economy (IPE) is affected by the conceptualizations and power relations pervading conventional approaches to IPE. Its two entwined objectives are to survey how ‘problematic premises’ – of positivism, modernism and masculinism (PMM) – underpin, interact and constrain dominant modes of theorizing IPE, and to consider how these premises shape interpretations of, responses to, debates within, and the current theory/practice of feminist IPE. The author first clarifies key terms and organizational framing, then surveys how PMM commitments variously appear in orthodox International Relations (IR) and Economics and in both orthodox and heterodox IPE. This survey reveals PMM operating as both impediments to transformative critiques of capitalist racist patriarchy and as resistances to feminist IPE. While operating differently in different discourses, the interaction of PMM premises is especially problematic. The author then focuses on feminist IPE, considers its relation to PMM premises and surveys the expanse of feminist interventions, internal debates and continuing issues.