“Sport has the power to change the world.” Nelson Mandela made this observation in the context of South Africa hosting the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Although the combined revenues of professional and collegiate sports cannot match those of a single large retailer, the outcome is reversed when considering the consumer time and media attention devoted to sports. Chapter 1 examines the size and source of this outsized intangible value and why fans still complain about the Dodgers move to Los Angeles 60 years after the act or why one out of every seven people on the planet watched the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. The answers are multi-layered, owing to the durable quality of sports consumption, the role that consumers play as team members, and very deep-seated connections that people make with competition.
This first chapter on what legal reasoning has been focuses on the medieval Italian jurists and their glosses and commentaries on Roman law. The argument is that it is the reasoning processes of these jurists that formed the direct historical basis for several particular characteristics of legal reasoning as it is today. The chapter discusses in some depth the dialectical and hermeneutical methods of these jurists and the use of divisio and distinctiones in order to solve both contradictions within the Roman sources themselves and the mass of factual problems and disputes that were relevant to the medieval period. The epistemological impact on legal thought of Aristotle’s rediscovered writings is also noted, as are the political and social issues which were theorised through the use of Roman law concepts.
This chapter provides a brief introduction to the notion of self-determination. Which minority groups are entitled to self-determine their fate, under which circumstances, and toward which goals? This chapter will first discuss the definition of the term “people,” as the right to self-determination purposely excludes all minority groups and only extends to those that qualify as “peoples.” Next, it will describe the evolution of the self-determination idea, from the colonial era and the idea that colonized peoples ought to be able to govern themselves freely, to the modern-day noncolonial application of self-determination, whereby oppressed minority groups are deemed to have the right to govern themselves free of the abusive reign of their mother state. Finally, the chapter will also distinguish between the ideas of internal and external self-determination, and will describe the different forms of self-determination existing around the globe, which include provincial, cultural, social, and/or political autonomy; free association; trusteeships; protectorates; and so on.