Peter A.G. van Bergeijk
Klaus Hoeyer, Aaro Tupasela and Malene Bøgehus Rasmussen
In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policymaking, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines of scientific work. This chapter takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query: What makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them? We explore what we call the flows, the nonflows, and the overflows of material and information, and we document the work producing the flows of health data and biomaterial. We call this work “ethics work” and argue that it is crucial for data sharing though it is rarely articulated in ethics policies, remains inadequately funded, and lacks acknowledgement in policies promoting international data sharing. The quest for Big Data is dependent on adequate maneuvering in local contexts and grand solutions of harmonization of ethics rules cannot replace the detailed ethics work aimed at acknowledging local concerns.
Blockchain is probably the most disruptive and revolutionary technology since the advent of the World Wide Web in the 1990s. Blockchain became known, above all, as the technology behind the bitcoin cryptocurrency. However, its potential still remains largely unexploited and according to experts, opportunities are almost ‘endless’, both in financial and non-financial sectors. Challenges and opportunities in this field vary greatly from person to person depending notably if they are researchers, practitioners or regulators. After a short introduction in order to place the analysis in its context, this chapter will focus on three selected opportunities, namely blockchain as a new payment method (cryptocurrency), as a new method for funding innovation (ICO/TGE) and as a new organizational structure (DAO); it will then focus on three selected challenges, namely regulatory, environmental and governance. The author then questions in a forward-looking manner whether blockchain may be seen as a gateway from the third to the fourth industrial/digital revolution.
Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead and Rosalia Vazquez-Alvarez
This first chapter, as an introduction to the whole book, summarises how growing inequality in Europe may have emerged from mechanisms in the world of work, with a particular focus on the possible role of social dialogue and the social partners – and more generally industrial relations – in reducing inequalities. The chapter first presents some major lessons from the national chapters and summarises their contributions to the existing research: How did national industrial relations systems address inequalities over time, and what have been their effects on various sources of inequality? This introduction also reviews some concrete outcomes of collective bargaining at national, sectoral and firm level that may have helped to reduce inequalities. It extends for this purpose the number of countries (beyond those covered by national chapters) in order to provide the most extensive overview of such outcomes. Third, this introduction complements the national stories with a comparative statistical analysis from the European Structure of Earnings Survey (SES, Eurostat) to more accurately identify specific effects of collective pay agreements on pay inequality, working time distribution and work contracts. Finally, this leads us to a number of policy considerations, which are presented briefly in the closing section and further developed in the national chapters.
Gianni Lo Schiavo
Like a latter-day Cinderella, the European Banking Union failed to make the original guest list when EMU formally began at Maastricht in 1992. Subsequently, however, the EBU went on to have its status transformed, gaining star billing. The significance of its belated creation has impressed scholars and participants alike. This article looks at the reasons for its initial exclusion, and the grounds for its then seemingly-inevitable subsequent eventual incorporation into the euro area structure in the form which it has taken. It also considers the elements which make the EBU: the Single Supervisory Mechanism, the Single Resolution Mechanism and the EBU's deposit insurance aspect. The future prospects of the EBU are then considered, and conclusions on the relationship between the EBU and EMU reached, with due regard being paid both to the need to update it and remain in step with broader international developments, and the need for its context to be accompanied by a Capital Markets Union.