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Edited by Sabri Boubaker, Douglas Cumming and Duc K. Nguyen

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Joseph R. Mason

While some have bemoaned CO2 markets’ performance due to low prices – that is, too low to deter emissions – a potentially bigger threat is that such markets develop to provide binding constraints arising not from market pricing but from non-fundamental factors like fraud and rent-seeking. Investor fraud, corporate fraud, and counterfeiting and theft are already well-known to these markets, with little in the way of specific oversight and protection. If we are to expect meaningful market development, it makes sense to insulate such markets rent-seeking, generally, including various forms of fraud, counterfeiting, and permit theft that have already manifested in the sector. Only by restraining such influences can we provide a smooth-functioning CO2 market that can be the basis of economic growth, without exposing the broader economy to the potential for commodity market panics and crashes.

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Edited by Sabri Boubaker, Douglas Cumming and Duc K. Nguyen

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Edited by Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Lisa E. Svensson and Anil Markandya

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Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Lisa Emelia Svensson and Anil Markandya

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Edited by Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Lisa E. Svensson and Anil Markandya

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Phoebe Koundouri, Wenting Chen, Osiel González Dávila, Amerissa Giannouli, José Hernández Brito, Erasmia Kotoroni, Evdokia Mailli, Katja Mintenbeck, Chrysoula Papagianni and Ioannis Souliotis

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Uschi Eid

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Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Joyeeta Gupta and Anik Bhaduri

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Eva Silveirinha de Oliveira and Catharine Ward Thompson

There has been a growing recognition that green infrastructure can have benefits for public health. This chapter traces evidence of the influence of green infrastructure on people’s health, from the mid-nineteenth century to the most recent studies. By examining two iconic green infrastructures – Boston’s Emerald Necklace and Buffalo Park system – it reviews Frederick Olmsted’s strategic vision which acknowledged the importance of green infrastructures in contributing to an improvement in public health. Through the review of the evidence available on the importance of green infrastructure in health, the chapter summarises the types of benefits (physical activity, restorative effect, social cohesion, air quality enhancement) and reflects on how the evidence relating to the importance of green spaces and contact with nature can be translated into the planning and design of green infrastructures. Finally, the Greenlink project is presented as a case study of best practice, illustrating how green infrastructure can promote health and wellbeing in local communities.