The freedom of association is enshrined in international conventions and state constitutions, and it has triumphed in many statutes and judicial decisions around the world. Association in the labour context can be viewed as yet another fulfilment of the general freedom to associate, as are the association of shareholders, political party members, social clubs or social movements. However, it is also regarded as a unique right that constitutes a central pillar for governing the labour market; a right intended to achieve goals such as equality, emancipation and dignity. Within the domains of this interpretation, it has been argued that the logic of association on labour’s side is different from that on capital’s side (Offe and Wiesenthal 1980). This book goes further, to argue there are two distinct logics of association on labour’s side, and as the title suggests – two logics of trade union representation. The one logic is that of workers coming together, acting to fight for their rights. The other logic is that of trade unions and employers’ associations, sometimes together with high-ranking officials of the state, negotiating labour market conditions. In both logics, membership is essential for the status, functioning and efficacy of the trade union. This is the unifying feature of both logics, singling out trade unions from other forms of association with similar objectives. Hence, the pivotal reference for understanding that the two logics of labour’s collective action is centred on membership. However, membership and its derivative traits – democracy, accountability, power and legitimacy – work in different ways.
The freedom of association designates a special role for trade unions in voicing the interests of workers and participating in the governance of the labour market. This chapter argues that trade unions are distinguished from other institutions of workers’ voice by their membership basis. However, the unity of trade unions conceals two distinct logics of what trade unions do, that is, enterprise-based and social-wide bargaining. The chapter distinguishes between the two on basis of their relationship with the fundamental justifications for the freedom of association, that is, democracy, equality, dignity and solidarity, and the ancillary bases for trade unions' actions – accountability, legitimacy and power. From these differences stem inherent tensions as well as the potential for complementarity, which will frame the study of membership-based strategies for trade unions’ revitalization efforts in the following chapters.
Pieter Van den Broeck, Asiya Sadiq, Ide Hiergens, Monica Quintana Molina, Han Verschure and Frank Moulaert
Questions of land tenure, security and access to land, are major concerns of citizens and migrants in most cities of the world. Neo-liberal urban policies have contributed to land tenure and land market transformation, land speculation, confiscation of public space, rise of land values and gentrification in inner cities. This has caused lack of tenure rights, exclusion from appropriate and affordable urban services, eviction and displacement, intra-urban migration and expansion of urban peripheries. Various land-based socially innovative initiatives are, however, responding by (re)conceptualising measures such as land sharing, community land trusts, starter titles and land readjustment, among others, to facilitate sharing of space under conditions of (sub)urban land transformation. This book seeks to generate state-of-the-art knowledge on collective action and policy in the area of land tenure and (sub)urban development. This introductory chapter explains this aim, situates the book within recent literature on land tenure dynamics, elaborates a governance perspective to assess these dynamics, and introduces the book’s chapters. It argues that as a key pillar of community development, dynamics and conditions of land tenure systems need to be well understood to formulate more appropriate development alternatives and governance systems attuned to the interests of the urban society as a whole, and the needs of the poor and the vulnerable citizens and migrants in particular. The book includes five conceptual chapters and covers 12 cases in nine countries in four continents (Pakistan, Peru, Brazil, Ghana, India, Ecuador, Mexico, Japan, Belgium), documenting commoning and social innovation initiatives and movements, responding to enclosure, privatisation, speculation and land trafficking. As such, the book fundamentally questions decennia-old relations between the private market sector, the state and civil society.
This chapter presents a taxonomy that distinguishes among different categories of theories, models and frameworks used in implementation science. The chapter describes five categories of theoretical approaches that achieve three overarching aims: (1) process models, which are aimed at describing and/or guiding the process of translating research into practice; (2) determinant frameworks; (3) classic theories and (4) implementation theories, which are aimed at understanding and/or explaining what influences implementation outcomes; and (5) evaluation frameworks, which are aimed at evaluating implementation. Awareness of how the approaches differ is important to facilitate the selection of relevant approaches. Most determinant frameworks provide limited ‘how-to’ support for carrying out implementation endeavours since the determinants usually are too generic to provide sufficient detail for guiding implementation. And while the relevance of addressing barriers and enablers to implementation is mentioned in many process models, these models do not describe specific determinants associated with implementation success.
Per Nilsen and Sarah A. Birken
In the wake of the evidence-based movement, which advocates for using research findings and empirically supported practices to achieve improved health and welfare of populations, implementation science has emerged as a vital, rapidly expanding research field. Implementation science is commonly defined as the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based practices into routine practice. This Prologue provides a brief introduction to the field of implementation science, identifies antecedent research and other influences on research conducted in the field, and describes the field’s development over time. The Prologue ends with the book’s short- and longer-term ambitions.