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Edited by Herwig C.H. Hofmann, Katerina Pantazatou and Giovanni Zaccaroni

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Merijn Chamon, Herwig C.H. Hofmann and Ellen Vos

More than 40 years experience with the EU decentralized agencies has made clear that the agencies are part and parcel of the EU’s institutional structure. These agencies can broadly be defined as bodies governed by European public law that are institutionally separate from the EU institutions, have their own legal personality, enjoy a certain degree of administrative and financial autonomy, and have clearly specified tasks. ‘Agencification’ of EU executive governance has thus become a fundamental feature of the EU’s institutional structure. Today there are around 40 EU decentralized agencies, which assist in the implementation of EU law and policy, provide scientific advice for both legislation and implementation, collect information, provide specific services, adopt binding acts and fulfil central roles in the coordination of national authorities. Agencies are part of a process of functional decentralization within the EU executive and operate in various policy fields, such as food and air safety, medicines, environment, telecommunications, disease prevention, border control, trademarks and banking, to name just a few.

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Edited by Gabriele Abels and Jan Battke

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Edited by Jeff Kenner, Izabela Florczak and Marta Otto

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Edited by Jeff Kenner, Izabela Florczak and Marta Otto

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Edited by Pablo Figueroa and Alejandro Guerrero

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Sergio Carrera, Juan Santos Vara and Tineke Strik

In this introduction to the book, the editors explain the relevance of analysing the constitutional aspects of the external dimension of EU migration and asylum policies. They argue that the labelling of the large arrival of refugees in 2015 as a crisis has severely affected the principles of the rule of law and the interinstitutional balance, which were just established with the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The authors substantiate that the contributions in the book move beyond the state of the art in the literature by connecting the internal and external dimensions of EU migration and asylum policy and by analysing old and new patterns of external cooperation on migration. Through that lens, they identify a tendency of informalisation of the external cooperation, leading to ‘de-constitutionalisation’ of the EU decision-making in this field. This process raises questions on the EU’s legitimacy of the external cooperation on migration, which are dealt with in the book. The third part of the introductory chapter summarises the contributions in the book.

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Richard Whish

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Edited by Kirsi-Maria Halonen, Roberto Caranta and Albert Sanchez-Graells

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Joseph A. McMahon