Chapter 3, taking into account field interactions in the Greater Mekong Subregion and in Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation economies, demonstrates a need for policy and knowledge tools in Asia which can drive regions successfully into the ecology of clusters and economic corridors: (a) via agglomeration economies; (b) via increase in value-added share in and along regional and global value chains; and (c) via structure transformation into higher skill industries and services.
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This chapter argues that farmer collective action in developing countries is in a process of transformation. While traditional farmer organizations and cooperatives had social, political and economic functions, the new producer organizations (POs) are mainly focusing on improving the market access of their members. Providing market information, establishing quality control systems and improving logistics are some of the main functions of the new POs. As POs come in many kinds and sizes, the chapter first presents a typology, particularly distinguishing between market-oriented business organizations and other rural membership organizations. This chapter reviews the literature on the role of POs in vertical coordination, contracting and market access. Finally, it discusses the effects of the assumed transformation process on the inclusiveness of the organization, on the efficiency of the internal governance, and on strengthening member relations.
Edited by Michael G. Plummer, Peter J. Morgan and Ganeshan Wignaraja
Michael G. Plummer, Peter J. Morgan and Ganeshan Wignaraja
This chapter summarizes the overall purpose, background, major findings and policy recommendations in this book. The goal of this book is to identify the main constraints to South Asian–Southeast Asian economic integration, to provide specific policies that governments – together with the private sector and other development partners – should follow to overcome them, and to estimate the potential benefits and costs of those policies. It surveys the key issues, delineates existing bottlenecks and what can be done to resolve them, and considers the stakes involved, that is, the benefits and costs of deepening inter-regional links. It offers policy recommendations for governments, presents promising new approaches for regional institutions, identifies priority projects, and uses a computable general equilibrium model to estimate overall benefits and impacts of various scenarios of greater cross-regional integration. The chapter provides the historical background of integration between the two regions, and describes the current state of trade and investment integration. It then summarizes the findings of the chapters and, finally, synthesizes some of the main findings of the study and summarizes key policy recommendations.