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Edited by Ada Scupola and Lars Fuglsang

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Edited by Sabri Boubaker, Douglas Cumming and Duc K. Nguyen

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Joseph R. Mason

While some have bemoaned CO2 markets’ performance due to low prices – that is, too low to deter emissions – a potentially bigger threat is that such markets develop to provide binding constraints arising not from market pricing but from non-fundamental factors like fraud and rent-seeking. Investor fraud, corporate fraud, and counterfeiting and theft are already well-known to these markets, with little in the way of specific oversight and protection. If we are to expect meaningful market development, it makes sense to insulate such markets rent-seeking, generally, including various forms of fraud, counterfeiting, and permit theft that have already manifested in the sector. Only by restraining such influences can we provide a smooth-functioning CO2 market that can be the basis of economic growth, without exposing the broader economy to the potential for commodity market panics and crashes.

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Edited by Sabri Boubaker, Douglas Cumming and Duc K. Nguyen

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Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young

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Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young

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Cyril F. Chang, Howard P. Tuckman and Grace L. Chikoto-Schultz

Using a select set of literature, this chapter reviews the progress in the line of research focusing on nonprofit income diversity and issues of financial health. General consensus exists on the diversity of revenue dependence across nonprofit fields, revealing heavy dependence on commercial revenue by some, on private contributions by others and diversified sources by others. We also address recent developments in theory building and testing that help explain these patterns. Although the literature on revenue diversification reveal mixed results, the general pattern shows a positive association between diversification and financial stability. However, close attention to the composition of an income portfolio is needed. Conversely, revenue concentration is generally associated with financial growth, albeit tempered by an increasing recognition of the limits of persistently concentrated revenue portfolios. We conclude by addressing the merits and gaps in current research, including the quality of current data, its access, scope and specificity.

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Constant D. Beugré

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Constant D. Beugré