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Anna Vypovska, Laura Johnson, Dinara Millington and Allan Fogwill
This chapter discusses key environmental and Indigenous peoples’ issues facing development of the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry in the Province of British Columbia, and examines the main approaches to mitigate, manage and monitor these issues effectively. The authors reviewed environmental assessment applications for 29 major natural gas and LNG projects in British Columbia that have undergone a typical environmental assessment process with the provincial or federal responsible authorities since 2010, as well as the content of primary regulatory documents and issues identified in relevant case law. The key environmental issues identified from the review include significant residual adverse effects related to greenhouse gas emissions; significant residual adverse effects and cumulative effects to rare and threatened wildlife species; and cumulative adverse impacts of natural gas development. The most common potential adverse impacts on Indigenous peoples’ interests summarized in the review include but are not limited to effects on health and socio-economic conditions; physical and cultural heritage; the current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes; sites of historical and archeological significance; and potential cumulative impacts on Aboriginal interests. The chapter also provides examples of key approaches to mitigate the foregoing issues and stresses the importance of effective consultation and engagement with Indigenous groups at early stages of the proposed projects development.
Jennifer I. Considine and Mary Lashley Barcella
Jennifer I. Considine
Richard D. Margerum and Cathy J. Robinson
Collaborative approaches to governance have been initiated to address some of the most complex and difficult problems facing society today. This chapter reviews the principles and concepts embodying collaboration and its evolution from a range of disciplines. It reviews the emergence of collaboration in the United States, Europe and globally. It explores the concept of collaboration and its principles across a diversity of disciplines, including urban planning, public administration, public policy, political science, conflict resolution and other fields. The authors unpack the concepts of challenges faced by collaboration and the extent to which these represent limitations or shortcomings of theory and practice. They also examine the concept of governance and its changing nature in relation to decision making, participants in this decision making and the role of government. The chapter concludes with an overview of each chapter in the book and its contributions to (1) theory and context, (2) problems and context, (3) policy politics and power, (4) organizations, stakeholders and governance, and (5) process and participation.