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Negotiating Early Job Insecurity

Well-being, Scarring and Resilience of European Youth

Edited by Bjørn Hvinden, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mi A. Schoyen and Christer Hyggen

Offering new knowledge and insights into European job markets, this book explores how young men and women experience job insecurity. By combining analysis of original data collected through a variety of innovative methods, it compares the trajectories of early job insecurity in nine European countries. Focusing on the ways in which young adults deal with this by actively increasing their chances of getting a job through a variety of methods, as the book shows how governmental policies can be altered to reduce early job insecurity.
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Youth Unemployment and Job Insecurity in Europe

Problems, Risk Factors and Policies

Edited by Bjørn Hvinden, Christer Hyggen, Mi A. Schoyen and Tomáš Sirovátka

Providing original insights into the factors causing early job insecurity in European countries, this book examines its short- and long-term consequences. It assesses public policies seeking to diminish the risks to young people facing prolonged job insecurity and reduce the severity of these impacts. Based on the findings of a major study across nine European countries, this book examines the diverse strategies that countries across the continent use to help young people overcome employment barriers.
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Edited by Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden

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Bryan Sanderson

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Carlos Cavallé

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Antonio Argandoña

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Henning Lohmann and Ive Marx

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Jean-Michel Bonvin, Benoît Beuret and Stephan Dahmen

This chapter emphasizes the various possible ways to conceive inequality and disadvantage, as well as the multiplicity of individual, social, economic, cultural, institutional, and so on, dimensions involved. The challenge in terms of public policies is then to select one informational basis of inequality, that is, to identify which dimensions of inequality are to be tackled via public policies and which ones can be discarded as less significant. In this selection process, the participation of vulnerable people, directly affected by disadvantage, makes a huge difference, as it can allow a more adequate identification of the inequalities to be tackled. The chapter sheds light on the complex intricacies between inequality and participation, and emphasizes the prerequisites for a full and effective participation of vulnerable people in the design and implementation of public policies struggling against inequality and disadvantage.

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Hans-Uwe Otto, Valerie Egdell, Jean-Michel Bonvin and Roland Atzmüller

In many European countries, a large number of young people aged 15 to 29 years have challenging and complex educational or labour market experiences. Since the 2008 economic crisis, the situation of young people has again deteriorated dramatically in many European countries and in particular in southern and eastern Europe. Employment and training opportunities have reduced, and levels of poverty and social exclusion have increased, not only, but especially, for young people. Thus, the question is emerging as to whether young people are a group at great risk of becoming, being and staying socially disadvantaged. It is this problem of the social disadvantage of young people in Europe in the aftermath of the economic crisis that this volume focuses upon. After having peaked in the immediate years after the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008 and the subsequent sovereign debt crisis in a range of European countries, the unemployment rate in the EU-28 for the 15 to 19 years age group stood at 24.6 per cent,1 for the 20 to 24 years age group at 19.1 per cent, and at 12.4 per cent for the 25 to 29 years age group.2 With the remarkable exception of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, who experienced a temporary peak of youth unemployment in the years preceding the crisis of 2008 (albeit on levels way below the situation in the so-called European periphery), in most European countries youth unemployment had remained relatively stable since the early 2000s – although a high degree of variation between European member states has to be taken into account.

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Introduction: the big challenges

The Impact on Labour Markets and Welfare States

Bent Greve

A number of presentations around and analysis of the possibilities of using new technology – from robots, Google cars to the ability to use Big Data to solve complex problems – have been put forward in recent years. Authors have tried to estimate the impact on labour markets and possible job losses because of the dramatic changes in the ways in which we will be able to produce and consume goods compared to previous times. This chapter will outline the hypothesis of how the changes will influence especially labour markets and welfare states in Europe, and indicate why these may have a profound impact on our understanding of dualisation within labour markets. It will further outline the content of the book.