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Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez, Alexandra Tsvetkova and Alessandra Faggian
This introductory chapter synthesizes the arguments presented by the book contributors and argues that a broad definition of innovation systems is appropriate in the context of developing and transition countries. By weaving in specific examples from the chapters, the introduction demonstrates the importance of a context-specific approach that takes into account sociocultural context, macroeconomic structures and institutions. Taken as a whole, the book shows how the system level of National Innovation Systems (NIS) influences the way firms and other actors build up competences and learn, while the outcomes of interactions among these actors at the micro level shape the NIS environment.
The first chapter of the book reviews the drivers, instruments and tools that link RCI to productivity. Multilateral institutions have identified key drivers of productivity for emerging economies. On the real, microeconomy side – the sole focus of this book – trade openness, foreign direct investment flows, trade-related infrastructure, quality of (skilled) labor inputs and the efficient allocation of human resources, economic diversification through structural change policies, financial sector development, and the business-oriented institutional and regulatory framework explain most of productivity growth.