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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Michael E. Milakovich and Jean-Marc Wise

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Clive Kerridge

Experiential learning - learning by doing - has long been advocated as an effective pedagogy for knowledge retention and soft skills development, with the role of reflection recognised as a key ingredient. Good business simulations are used successfully in many environments and professions, including Higher Education. They are often enjoyed by students and facilitate the three types of learning: effective, cognitive and behavioural. We look at the benefits to students and instructors of including business simulations within blended learning study programmes; which type of ‘sim’ to choose and when to use it; what to do (and what not to do!) to ensure simulations, and the associated experiential learning, contribute to student engagement and effective learning in a business school context.

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Edited by Kathy Daniels, Caroline Elliott, Simon Finley and Colin Chapman

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Edited by Kathy Daniels, Caroline Elliott, Simon Finley and Colin Chapman

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Paul W. Grimes

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Paul W. Grimes

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Salla Sissonen

As an afterthought to the chapters in the book, this epilogue plays with the idea of looking to the future by briefly examining what is happening at earlier stages of education today. By understanding some of the objectives of the Finnish national core curriculum 2014 and taking a look at the practices at school, we can imagine the optimal skillsets that a now 12-year-old child will have when they enter higher education in a few years’ time. Optimally, we will be faced with a person with a developed understanding of how they learn best, a creative learner and problem-solver with skills in meaningful use of technology. This chapter argues that it does not mean the efficient future learners will not require teaching; on the contrary, we will continue to need competent pedagogical thinkers to guide the students on their individual paths to lifelong-learning.

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Annika Zorn, Jeff Haywood and Jean-Michel Glachant

The introduction discusses how the digital trend that has substantially disrupted other sectors is transforming the higher education sector or even posing a threat to academic institutions’ core business. What could be the rationale for higher education institutions to incorporate a comprehensive digital agenda into their core strategy? Outlining the main developments over the past years in the areas of education, research and knowledge sharing, the authors argue that academic institutions are still far from grasping the full potential of what the digital offers to the academy. Not only does the adoption of online and open practices allow universities to respond to major challenges facing them today, but a digital vision also allows higher education institutions to re-define their role in society. Subsequently, the authors outline how the examples discussed in the book, stemming from a variety of academic contexts, will enrich our understanding of what ‘moving online’ might entail and how to make it work in practice.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

The last chapter of this book includes the reflections of the two co-authors on how to move forward as educators and pave the path for continued learning about leadership studies. It emphasizes key takeaways from the previous chapters. Readers will find different aspects of the book more valuable depending on their individual interests and level of experience and maturity in developing and implementing leadership programs. This chapter lays out the priorities that should inform all educators when teaching leadership.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

In this chapter, we explore the intellectual development of leadership studies (e.g., the empirical study of leadership, the development of a leadership canon, leadership as a discipline) as a way to suggest different paths that educators might take in developing a leadership curriculum. There is no single formula for developing a rigorous curriculum to expand students’ knowledge of how leadership works. Academic strengths of educators as well as an institution’s traditions may influence the types of courses that are integrated into a leadership program. These choices must provide students with a deeper understanding of the concepts and literary contributions of the leadership canon. Every leadership program obviously will have a different history and reality that will shape the curricular choices that are made. The key to a vibrant leadership curriculum is to be intentional and rigorous in curricular development.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

This chapter is designed to introduce educators to the interdisciplinary connections that have given rise to leadership studies. While many leadership programs trace their roots to student affairs offices, the current academic study of leadership is often housed in various academic departments. The chapter begins by engaging the reader in this question about the interdisciplinary teaching of leadership: Is it a dialogue of disciplines or a pedagogical tool for understanding human relations? Next, the chapter reviews the different approaches that educators have taken to advance the teaching of leadership, including pre-professional, liberal-arts, and topic-based programs. The chapter ends with a discussion about the dynamic of finding an academic home for leadership studies.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Leadership development is deeply personal. Part of the leadership development experience is to recognize that there is no easy way to become a successful leader, and that leaders require a certain level of humility. Practical wisdom is gained by developing the habits of doing the right thing in the right way at the right time through experience. Learners need to be able to understand the choices they make and the consequences of the decisions they take. This chapter includes examples of activities educators can use for creating an environment in which their learners can gain practical wisdom and highlights a few program strategies that develop leadership capacities in learners when working with others. Finally, the chapter examines the role of failure in gaining practical wisdom.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

This chapter offers brief descriptions of programs from two institutions that can be adopted, adapted, or adjusted. The intention behind this chapter is to share program designs and activities and provide a space for reflection on how these activities may translate into others’ own institutional reality. The examples provided in this chapter give educators a wide variety of activities that can be generated through careful consideration of students’ maturity and developmental stages. For example, in some cases, programs are intentionally targeted to first-year students and help them transition to a higher level of learning beyond high school. In other instances, programs focus on seniors as they prepare to make the transition out of college.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

This chapter focuses on educators’ self-reflection. It begins by detailing the self-awareness, cultural, and technical competencies educators must first cultivate in themselves, so they may model the values, attitudes, and behaviors the program seeks to develop in its learners. Leadership educators in curricular and co-curricular programs need to continually assess their leadership presence, understand their audience, and strive to demonstrate congruence between values and behavior. The chapter presents strategies for using self-awareness to create an optimal learning environment. The chapter begins with a discussion of what is meant by self-awareness, and then presents examples of how a number of educators have cultivated this awareness and effectively applied it in shaping their learning environments. Leadership educators must continually evaluate their effectiveness in creating an emotionally, socially, and intellectually supportive space for their learners.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Excellent leadership programs are developed through rigorous attention to detail. Well-designed sessions convey the educator’s dedication to the material and respect for the learners’ time and effort. Put simply, by intentionally crafting and organizing each session, educators communicate a devotion to doing things right, which puts them well on their way to establishing trust, credibility, and respect as stepping-stones to leadership. This chapter begins with a general overview of the components of effective session design as follows: assessing audience maturity level and readiness; establishing SMART learning outcomes; identifying key concepts; incorporating leadership categories and competencies; outlining content and roles; and creating time for reflection. With a session design in place, the chapter focuses on logistical considerations for its implementation, including some tools used for organizing sessions within a program.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Leadership educators should create a robust program assessment and evaluation culture at the launch of a leadership program. Ideally, such a culture promotes an ethos of continuous quality improvement and evidence-based decision-making. The data and information it yields form the basis for understanding the program’s achievement of goals and its impact. It helps educators to determine how well the content is advancing student learning and how program results satisfy the interests of key stakeholders. An evidence-based plan that measures learning, satisfaction, and program efficiency can play a critical role in promoting the program and providing funding justification to donors. This chapter presents a systematic assessment framework that thrives on a culture of continuous quality improvement and can be implemented within a single program or across multiple programs.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Leadership programming is at the core of leadership education, training, and development. In this chapter, we describe how to conceptualize and develop co-curricular leadership programming. First, steps should be taken to identify and understand the target population for the program. Then educators should assess the available resources and assemble a team of similarly motivated individuals to assist in the development process. From there, research should be conducted to help further conceptualize the program. Finally, educators should establish initial program goals and SMART student learning outcomes for their program to ensure that the needs of both the students and the educators will be fulfilled by the proposed design. The chapter provides a systematic path forward based on seven core pillars of program design.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Much has been written about the use of technology in the classroom. The term “smart” has become associated with a technology-enhanced classroom. In this chapter, we offer a different take on the term “‘smart’ classroom.” A “smart” classroom is one in which the educator and the learners alike engage in a transformative process. Technology may be part of that process, but it is not an end in itself. In the first section of the chapter, we examine the assumptions we make about the term “‘smart’ classroom.” The second section of the chapter introduces strategies that educators can use to increase learner engagement in the classroom (e.g., the Socratic method, use of artifacts, case studies). The chapter closes with an examination of “nontraditional” approaches to leadership pedagogy, for example service-learning projects, simulations, the flipped classroom, and the “mobile” classroom.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Students need to develop vibrant networks of mentors from whom they can seek input for problems they face or decisions they need to make. By leaning on their support networks, leaders are able to make the best decision possible with all the data related to an issue they are trying to resolve. This chapter covers the many different ways an educator can approach student growth and guidance and how mentorship and networks can play a role. First, mentorship is defined through a review of the current literature, followed by an examination of the benefits of mentorship to mentors and mentees alike. The chapter provides examples of mentoring programs that students have found useful and outlines lessons learned as a result of program implementation. The chapter ends with an examination of the concept of networking and how it can support personal and professional growth.

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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

When reviewing the promotional materials of most colleges and universities in the United States, we are hard pressed to find any without the use of the word “leader” or “leadership.” Yet, when we delve deeper into their catalogues and websites, the numbers dwindle. Teaching leadership goes beyond mission statements in which leadership is articulated. This chapter reviews the evolution of teaching leadership and its place in higher education. We approach the teaching of leadership as having three conceptual approaches – as an intellectual enterprise (the study of leadership), a focus on competency-building (leadership training), and the promotion of leadership development. We frame the teaching of leadership through four levels of analysis – individual, team/community, organizational, and global. At the end of the chapter, we combine these two perspectives (the three conceptual approaches and the four levels of analysis) to create an overarching map of the different topics that are used in the teaching of leadership.

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Riccardo Bellofiore

The ‘theses’ published in this chapter were written for the first time 15 years ago, then rewritten more than a decade ago as an intervention in a round table: some updating has been done for the present publication. They have had a long gestation: in fact, the maturation of the theses covers the author’s entire life in the university, first as a student and then as a teacher.

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Daniela Tavasci

Mainstream economics frequently reproduces itself by excluding alternative perspectives from undergraduate curricula. Challenges also arise from the unwillingness of lecturers to experiment in their teaching as a result of institutional pressures related to students’ satisfaction and, in general, to issues around the commodification of higher education. This chapter outlines an innovative approach to introducing alternative economic perspectives into economics curricula through a reflective redesign of a History of Economic Thought module taught at the School of Economics and Finance of Queen Mary University of London. An account of this learning and teaching experience is accompanied by the findings of a small research project focused on the students’ experience of their exposure to pluralistic economics.

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Constantinos Repapis

In most universities in the UK, history of economic thought, when it is taught, is taught either as a specialist or an optional module in the second and third year of the degree. This contribution argues in favour of introducing elements from the history of economic thought into the first-year introductory economics module. The author looks at five reasons why this is an important change in developing curricula that teach economics through its history and evolution.

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Gerald Friedman

The author presents ideas on using history of thought to illuminate economic theory in the teaching of introductory economics. In this, he draws on his experience as a life-long observer of economics teaching and from 35 years teaching Introduction to Microeconomics, first at Tufts University and then at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He suggests how the study of history of thought can enhance learning both for those who follow the dominant orthodoxy and those who criticize it. Furthermore, as pedagogy, teaching history of thought can help students learn, by maintaining their interest and by giving them a deeper and richer understanding of economic theory.

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Daniela Tavasci and Luigi Ventimiglia

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Stephanie Fuller

Teaching the history of economic thought is fast becoming an important topic of debate and discussion within economics teaching. But the use of historical perspectives in teaching is also an issue of much wider relevance across higher education. The motivations and challenges of implementing this kind of approach are specific to each discipline; however, there are things that we can learn from a range of subjects that can help inform teaching the history of economic thought. This chapter explores the debates around teaching with historical perspectives in a range of subjects, before focusing on some of the practical approaches used by teachers, and exploring the impact of this pedagogical approach on students.

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Joseph Halevi

In 2004 the author founded, and taught till retirement, the main second-year economic theory course at the newly established Department of Political Economy at the University of Sydney: Economic Theories of Modern Capitalism, code ECOP2011. The Department, which was formed in 2000, originated from a split within the traditional one in the 1970s. Although its main focus is on issues and not on analytical approaches to economics, its creation provided the opportunity for establishing a mainstay course based on a comprehensive historical and analytical view of economics from its modern inception.

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Luigi Ventimiglia

During his teaching career, the author realized that a logical flow needed to be adopted in teaching financial economics in order to bring to life those modules that students found hard to understand behind the simple mechanical application. This chapter shows how teaching with historical perspectives (THP) is about contextualizing the teaching of a subject both in terms of the genesis of a model or theory, and in terms of its development and evolution. THP provides a framework that allows students to group models together within the same school of thought and discuss the formation of new paradigms. As a result, students are able to easily use models that are relevant to their employability.

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Louis-Philippe Rochon

This chapter focuses on money and banking in the history of economic thought, to show that the nature of money and the role of banks have been essentially misunderstood in a number of strands of thought. This has led to a variety of monetary policy interventions, both in economic history and at the time of writing, that were not (and could not be) up to the task. The conclusion asserts that it is essential that the properties of money and banking are understood by teachers and researchers, as well as policy makers in the economic domain.

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Catherine Vertesi

Although the focus in the past decade has been on increasing the numbers of students leaving their home university for an international study experience, recent research has shown that merely going abroad is not enough to transform participants into global citizens. It is increasingly clear that in planning exchanges and other study abroad opportunities for students, the teaching, the orientation activities and the mentoring surrounding the travel are key to maximizing the impact of the foreign immersion as well as the post-return contributions to departmental internationalization. This chapter will focus on the practical aspects of developing a portfolio of offerings, the selection of partners and participants, the cultural orientation, itinerary development, values examination and reflection, and reintegration. Initially the focus will be on affecting the transformation of the individual student. Later in the chapter we will revisit the need for returning students to assist in meeting the internationalization needs of the department. Educators can play a role to assist students to deconstruct aspects of their international experience to better inform the experiences they will engage in for themselves and to contribute to the internationalization of those who stay at home.

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J.E. (Joe) Barth

The use of written examinations in student evaluation has decreased over time, and most instructors have chosen other means of evaluation despite problems with group work, plagiarism and academic misconduct. Examinations have been shown to be an effective evaluative tool and motivate students to do well. The controlled environment provided by the examination process makes cheating more difficult and enhances the integrity of the evaluation system. Gaps between examination questions, course materials and classroom teaching undermine learning and reduce examination validity. Instructors can do many things to reduce examinations stress, increase the validity of examinations and improve students’ satisfaction with the examination itself. Two-stage, collaborative examinations show promising results for both student evaluation and enhanced learning. The positive attributes of examinations as an evaluation tool are further supported by the prevalence of academic misconduct, plagiarism and cheating found in other means of evaluation.

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Émilie Crossley

Criticality is a concept that has gained increasing traction among tourism scholars seeking to articulate socially progressive, politically engaged and methodologically innovative perspectives. However, tourism education has remained largely insulated from these radical and transformative currents within the academy. Predominantly, university programs still focus on producing graduates with pragmatic management competencies rather than the ability to engage critically with the social and environmental challenges faced by tourism practitioners. Building on emergent debates within the field of tourism education, this chapter explores the plural and contested meanings of criticality as a theoretical orientation and pedagogical practice. Three pedagogical moments are identified along a continuum of criticality, which moves progressively towards uncertainty and reflexivity, and the potential of each for enriching teaching and learning in tourism is evaluated.

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Stephen Wearing, Michael A. Tarrant, Stephen Schweinsberg and Kevin Lyons

This chapter explores the potential of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) in promoting cultural and environmental awareness through sustainable tourism education. The chapter considers how an experiential framework built on an ecological paradigm provides a platform for WIL that not only exposes learners to concrete experiences, but also has the capacity to introduce them to authentic practices through interaction with industry and community leaders and players. Two case studies of WIL are presented from programs being run at the University of Georgia and the University of Technology (Sydney). These descriptive cases provide evidence of the different modes of WIL application, which are then used by the authors as a starting point for a discussion on the contribution of WIL to sustainable tourism education. The chapter concludes by considering the potential for such an approach to be embraced by higher education in less formal education contexts such as the gap year.

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Vivina Almeida Carreira and Pedro Bingre do Amaral

This chapter provides an insight into the history of an ecotourism degree in Portugal, the way its objectives were aligned with the pedagogical purposes of the institution that harbors it, as well as the adaptations it went through as the requirements of educational policies and the work market changed since the degree’s inception. The syllabus of this course encompasses a broad range of scientific areas, as it takes advantage of the fact that the Higher School of Agriculture where it is taught is a centre for agro-sciences, forestry and environmental studies. This variety of academic areas fosters synergies with other courses offered on the same premises, and as a consequence ecotourism students may acquire know-how and participate in activities in areas as diverse as the natural resource management (including woodlands and wild game), the processing of agro-food products in rural contexts, the design of tourist routes, food and wine tourism, equine sports and management, organic agriculture, bird watching, nature conservation and entrepreneurship, among others. The syllabus was twice revised to reflect both the feedback of the labor market and the criteria set by the Bologna Convention. After a brief presentation of the course, its objectives and rationale for its launching, an analysis of its evolution is conducted pinpointing the main changes introduced and the reasons that motivated them. The appropriateness of the syllabus to the prospective graduates was evaluated ex-post, by means of inquiries made to former students that provided a vista into their careers in ecotourism after obtaining their diploma.

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Karen Hughes, Aliisa Mylonas and Roy Ballantyne

The nurturing of learners’ soft skills is critical to the development of work-ready tourism graduates. In this chapter we argue that teaching learners to purposefully reflect on situations and, in particular, to critically assess their own and others’ actions and reactions is key to this process. We also maintain that activities and strategies to develop these abilities need to be scaffolded throughout their program. To this end, we use the ideas contained in the 5Rs Reflective Thinking Framework (reporting, responding, relating, reasoning and reconstructing), together with those from the Teaching and Assessment for Reflective Learning (TARL) Model, to present a range of in-class learning experiences and assessment ideas that can be integrated into tourism courses to assist and support learners in becoming effective reflective practitioners.

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Claudia Mössenlechner

Technological advances enable both educational institutions and students to receive, directly access and work with materials and information from prospective employers and, in fact, interact with the tourism industry itself. ePortfolios in higher education have become an omnipresent theme over the last decade, with many universities investing both human and monetary resources. The following chapter is conceptual in its nature and looks at the possibilities that can make use of the connecting elements in ePortfolio work for educational purposes in tourism higher education. The chapter identifies the main concepts and practice of ePortfolios in higher education and delineates the implications of multiple audiences in portfolio work. The ePortfolio Teaching Space is described as an interface of four main spaces in which educators in higher education operate when designing frameworks and tasks. In the literature it became evident that a focus in research regarding pedagogical aspects is necessary, that is, there is a need to take a closer look at the work of the educator when looking at ePortfolios as a context for learning in higher education. Here, an extended framework for task design in ePortfolio work is developed. A focus is put on the dimensions that are relevant for determining the indirect teaching process through task design. The chapter closes with a brief outline of assessment strategies in ePortfolio work and a discussion on ePortfolio adoption issues and challenges.

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Brian King and Hanqin Qiu Zhang

Learners who complete tourism and hospitality degree programs graduate into a world that is often described as the ‘experience economy’. This chapter addresses how graduates can acquire experiential learning through the course of their studies and be equipped for this world as both citizens and professionals in their chosen domain. In preparing graduates for careers in a service-oriented sector, tourism and hospitality higher education lends itself to experiential delivery modes. Whilst internships or cooperative education are the most readily appreciated examples of experiential delivery, there are many other forms, notably service learning. Though an experiential learning approach often involves a strong off-campus emphasis, it can also be applied in classroom settings. There is self-evidently a need for higher education to provide learners with a theoretical base, since critical inquiry distinguishes it from the ‘how to’ emphasis of technical and vocational education. In the present chapter the authors explore how an Asia-based institution – The Hong Kong Polytechnic University – has advanced experiential learning in the curriculum with notable reference to Hotel ICON, a university owned and operated teaching and research hotel. The reference to research as well as to teaching indicates that experiential learning involves knowledge creation as well as application. The authors explain how the mandating of a four-year curriculum for public universities by the Hong Kong government (degrees were previously three years long) has benefited students by extending the scope for innovative experiential learning.

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Gayle Jennings, Olga Junek, Mary-Anne Smith, Sandra Kensbock and Ulrike Kachel

The purpose of this chapter is to narrate and interpret the lived experiences of four research students who variously engaged in a series of research dialogue sessions over a two and a half year period. The research dialogue sessions were designed to generate dialogue through collective learning experiences. The sessions were founded on social learning theories and community of practice principles. The dialogue sessions were instigated by the students’ university research-student supervisor to facilitate enculturation into a university-research culture and acculturation into a qualitative research profession. As part of a process of reflexive praxis, the supervisor asked the four students to write about their individual lived experiences of the research dialogue sessions. Each of the students wrote a narrative tale constructed using minimal equilibrium/disequilibrium emplotments. Thematic analysis was used to interpret and explain their experiences. The students were included in the interpretive processes. Specific recommendations for tourism and hospitality research student training include acknowledgement of and attention to the role of affect in the conduct of qualitative research and experiencing university research cultures, the use of a partnership model of supervision, the importance and inclusion of social learning theories, recognition of the role of supervisors in the establishment and continuance of research dialogue sessions, the power of dialogue for social learning with peers, and a shifting of locus of control from supervisors to students in research dialogue sessions. Importantly for praxis, through the process of engaging in qualitative research dialogue sessions, students learnt how to ‘be in and of’ a qualitative research culture and how to professionally ‘be’ a qualitative researcher.

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Pierre Benckendorff and Anita Zehrer

The aim of this original contribution is to evaluate the future of teaching and learning in tourism by considering developments at the macro, meso and micro levels. First, we review some of the megatrends impacting on the future and we use these as a foundation to provide a synthesis of the future of teaching and learning in tourism at the macro level. We also discuss meso and micro-level trends by synthesizing and extending the key themes that emerge from a number of the chapters presented in this volume. We attempt to extend on the work already presented by not only summarizing key themes but also adding additional commentary and analysis about the future of institutions, curricula, social and critical pedagogies, students and learning outcomes. Despite the challenges faced by higher education, we conclude that the intersection of two of the world’s most exciting post-industrial industries, tourism and education, offers many opportunities for innovation and disruption of traditional systems and models.

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Magdalena Kachniewska and Anna Para

Tourism is perceived to be one of the biggest and fastest growing global industries. Consequently, there is an increasing need for qualified, highly educated professionals possessing broad knowledge and competencies as well as employability skills. This chapter explores hospitality employers’ expectations of the higher education system in Poland. The study advocates that the hospitality field of study needs to refocus in order to adapt to a rapidly changing business environment and industry’s needs. The purpose of the chapter is to identify the most significant gaps between tourism education and industry needs. The study confirms the outcomes of other research carried out within the tourism education sector. The research was conducted in 2013 in 103 hotels, with 147 managers being interviewed. The findings show that changes to tourism education may strengthen the employability and flexibility of graduates. The respondents stress the need and significance of personal qualities favouring service quality and the importance of an appropriate organizational culture (e.g. creativity, entrepreneurship, flexibility, conscientiousness, synergy). At the same time those qualities seem to be neglected in the education process, both in the merit and didactic dimensions.

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Tamara Young and Amy Maguire

Tourism courses are increasingly being taught only within business and management schools where the curricula tend to focus on workplace competencies. However, teaching and learning in tourism can, and should, provide critical opportunities that promote cultural learning and identity formation. In this chapter we consider how tourism educators can implement Indigenized curricula to educate students for social and curricular justice. Interdisciplinary and cultural competencies are essential tools for educators in this endeavor. An Indigenized curriculum incorporates Indigenous knowledges and perspectives throughout courses, signaling the commitment of educators and institutions to acknowledge the particularized and multiple discourses in tourism that exist beyond the common experience of many students. Efforts to Indigenize curricula aim to promote improved educational outcomes for Indigenous students, and to broaden the understanding and critical capacities of all students.

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Babu P. George

The present chapter provides some intensely personal reflections about the past, present and future of tourism higher education, with special focus on India. The author highlights forces of continuity and change in the historical development of tourism education. In addition to more trivial issues such as curriculum design, instruction and campus placements, deeper currents that manipulate the system such as authority and dogma are touched upon. Special mention is accorded to the historical factors that resulted in the current state of institution development and the future outlook. While no grand design is offered as a panacea for the largely unpleasant state of affairs, it is hoped that the discussion contained here will help clarify the issues better, which is the first major step in identifying meaningful solutions.

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Nicholas Wise

In disciplines such as geography and tourism, maps are inherently important, and knowledge of space and place is central to understanding key concepts such as regeneration. It has been noted that using visuals in the classroom further emphasizes practical and theoretical subject content. The purpose of the chapter is to overview the practicality of visual approaches by focusing on and providing examples of integrating Google Earth into the classroom for lectures and seminars. Images and perceptions of places can be transformed through visual learning techniques and technologies. Google Earth is a readily available resource and many academics have used this technology for research, but it is equally applicable to use in lectures to show ‘on the ground’ examples of the content being covered in class – to elaborate using up-to-date or more recent/relevant examples from around the world. Using this visual technology, educators have another way to display course content visually. It is possible to virtually visit and interpret places using satellite imagery and Google Streetview or to have learners add interpretations by labeling points or adding lines in Google Earth to address the complexities of examples to facilitate discussion. Several examples are used in this chapter: the first uses an example of an existing .kmz file with preselect points to navigate to different areas and the use of historical imagery (using Glasgow and Pittsburgh as examples). The second subsection gives overviews of a few examples to use in a seminar where learners make interpretations of the landscapes and input their perspective on regenerated areas in cities and uses of space around visitor attractions.

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Andrea Boyle

The body of knowledge as to what constitutes ‘sustainability’ in education is garnering interest. However, progress towards embedding sustainability principles in the curriculum space appears eclipsed by operational sustainability measures currently taking place at most Australian universities. Advancement of education for sustainability (EfS) in teaching and learning practices appears thwarted in many fields of study. This chapter presents findings from a qualitative study which explored tourism teachers’ perspective of EfS. Thirty-one Australian university tourism academics with an interest or experience in teaching sustainability concepts were interviewed. In part, the study aimed to uncover the dilemmas tourism teachers face with EfS and to ascertain possible future directions for EfS in tourism higher education. Analysis of academic comments revealed challenges located within two broad categories: (1) personal dilemmas and (2) dilemmas arising from the institutional context in which academics were located. Implications arising from the identified challenges are examined and several future directions suggested to help foster EfS. The question posed is how the lessons learnt from EfS research can be translated in order to provide meaningful, holistic tourism curricula and critical pedagogy. It seems that to develop the knowledge and future thinking capabilities of EfS, business-focused tourism programs need to undertake a paradigm shift from ‘business-as-usual’ curricula content and pedagogy, towards an approach that incorporates critical perspectives.

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Cathy H.C. Hsu

The importance of internationalizing tourism education is indisputable; however, documentation of the effectiveness of related activities is seriously lacking. The limited available evidence suggests that tourism higher education internationalization activities have been carried out on an ad hoc basis without a comprehensive strategic plan. Based on a review of the general education literature and current internationalization efforts of various tourism programs, the discussion focuses on several issues related to internationalization. The importance of coherent strategies and ways of offering an internationalized curriculum are reviewed first. The need for and ways of recruiting, retaining and developing faculty members who are capable of cultivating an international, multicultural learning environment are discussed next. Furthermore, examples of how to provide international exposure for students and models of international collaboration are proposed. Even with the understanding of the importance and different models of internationalization, barriers exist for institutions, faculty and students to realize their best intentions. To ensure that international efforts achieve the purpose of enhancing student learning, pedagogical planning, support services for students and faculty, and proper assessment mechanism are required. Based on the discussion, more tourism education research to document the advancement of tourism education internationalization and a systematic approach to these efforts are suggested.

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Ara Pachmayer, Kathleen Andereck and Rebekka Goodman

The purpose of this chapter is to explore study abroad programs as a tool to internationalize the tourism curriculum. Using contact theory, a model for intercultural competence and the theory of experiential education we provide a framework to design a study abroad program and identify effective teaching approaches. Future implications on the topic are also discussed.

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Kevin Griffin

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of current international practice in relation to fieldtrips, and thereby to explore the value of this pedagogical tool. The data were collected via an online survey of Irish based and international colleagues, and the results draw inspiration from the 152 respondents who generously provided the researcher with extensive feedback and reflections regarding their experiences on fieldtrips. The chapter explores some of the main findings from the survey including the type of fieldtrips that participants organize; participation by students; logistics, initiation and management of trips; educational elements including evaluation and assessment; and examples of best practice. The findings highlight that while firm pedagogical considerations are central to participants’ planning and undertaking of such experiential trips, their importance is often overlooked by colleagues and institutions. Despite the many institutional and bureaucratic barriers, such as funding issues, concerns regarding insurance, and health and safety, individuals are passionate about using fieldtrips to improve their teaching and to provide students with deeper, real life experiences. The chapter concludes with recommendations, particularly the need for institutions to acknowledge and support the often unrecognized fieldtrip efforts of practitioners.

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Nicolai Scherle and Dirk Reiser

Fieldtrips are an increasingly important component of university education. They provide an essential link between theoretical learning in the classroom and practical experience ‘in the field’. This chapter illustrates how fieldtrips can contribute to students’ ability to understand intercultural issues, especially in the context of tourism and hospitality courses. Experiential learning that is acquired in field excursions will be beneficial for graduates who will seek employment in increasingly internationalized markets. Tourism education especially requires a strong focus on intercultural understanding, and consequently is particularly well suited for studying the role of international fieldtrips in student learning. First, the conceptual understanding of educational fieldtrips is described and the new research areas of ‘intercultural competence’ and ‘intercultural communication’ are introduced. This is followed by a qualitative case study of a fieldtrip of German university students to Morocco, which incorporates these new concepts in order to exemplify the relevance of fieldtrips for developing intercultural competence. A general recommendation of the study is that fieldtrips should become a more important part of university education, especially in tourism and hospitality courses, because they equip students with the necessary skillsets for success in an increasingly internationalized workplace. As future employers and employees, university students in tourism and hospitality will therefore require courses on intercultural competence that will meet the demands of a rapidly evolving tourism industry. The case study provides an example of the knowledge and experience that students may acquire from cross-cultural fieldtrips. However, our findings also raise questions around the impacts of international fieldtrips on host cultures and to what extent these impacts are positive or negative.

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Anna Blackman and Pierre Benckendorff

There is substantial evidence that greater numbers of university students are mixing their studies with paid employment. The high rate of student participation in the labor market raises a number of interesting questions, particularly for those students enrolled in vocational programs such as business and tourism. Anecdotal evidence suggests that these students are developing a range of practical skills and knowledge about the world of work and the operation of real businesses. While a number of studies have explored the outcomes of placements and internships, there is little empirical research investigating what skills and learning benefits business students might gain from part-time work. More importantly, it is unclear whether students can easily connect learning in the workplace with learning in the classroom environment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of part-time work in helping business students understand the world of work and in allowing them to integrate theory and practice. Business students from two Australian universities were surveyed mid-semester following a one-hour workshop designed to encourage students to reflect on informal learning and tacit knowledge acquired in the workplace. The results indicate that paid part-time work is perceived as a useful activity for developing a number of transferable skills, most notably interpersonal skills, teamwork and adaptability, numeracy skills, problem solving and communication. In addition, a majority of business students perceived some congruence between their work and academic studies. Part-time work appears to contribute to academic performance by developing business knowledge and skills that are transferable to university contexts and by providing students with a more grounded perspective which allows them to grasp abstract academic concepts more quickly and easily. If part-time work does have useful integrative learning outcomes for students and if appropriately designed pedagogy can assist students to integrate their experiences in the workplace with the curriculum then paid part-time work may be a useful alternative to more costly Work-Integrated Learning programs in business.

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Violet V. Cuffy

Tourism higher education has long had a significant role in preparing a skilled and educated workforce for a dynamic and rapidly growing industry. However, compared to other academic fields, research and innovation in tourism higher education has not benefited from the same levels of growth observed within the industry. For instance, lifelong learning (LLL) is a globally accepted phenomenon at both government and institutional levels. Nevertheless, the discourse on lifelong tourism education is limited. In Scotland, the Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) is currently utilized as the main instrument for achieving an extensive program that meets government’s agenda for providing education for life, work and industry. Nevertheless, in the area of tourism there has been very little focused engagement and adoption of lifelong learning approaches. This chapter seeks to address this gap by examining the Scottish experience in general, and in particular two universities: the Academies Model at Queen Margaret University (QMU) and the Lifelong Learning Centre at Strathclyde University. Acknowledging the diverse nature of the tourism industry, tourism curriculum space, ongoing debate and challenges of its design, structure and delivery, the chapter proffers Lifelong Learning for Tourism Higher Education (LLLfTHE), a holistic collaborative approach for advancing a lifespan national tourism curriculum.

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Jamie Murphy, Nadzeya Kalbaska, Lorenzo Cantoni, Laurel Horton-Tognazzini, Peter Ryan and Alan Williams

Empowering and commoditizing, with predicted educational outcomes ranging from a utopian to a dystopian future, the media and academia are making sweeping generalizations about Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Such hyperbole about innovations is common, and often misguided. Historically, online learning pedagogy began with cognitive-behaviorist approaches followed by social learning, connectivism and community learning. The chapter’s discussion of MOOC pedagogy, success measures, types and categorizations and an online learning continuum should prove useful for educators and administrators considering MOOC initiatives or research. This chapter helps ground the hyperbole, reviewing MOOCs as the latest _ not the last _ in a long line of distance learning innovations, and positioning MOOCs as one of four proposed categories of online learning. The study has a strong educational focus, exemplified by differences between the two main MOOC pedagogies, extended (xMOOC) and connectivist (cMOOC), and MOOCs’ abysmal completion rates. Educators, administrators and industry should also benefit from discussion of a major MOOC unknown: viable business models. Although there are no proven or definitive models, MOOCs offer exciting opportunities to explore new and innovative education delivery. The chapter does, however, suggest a few strategies for implementing MOOCs and ways to measure MOOC success. Due in part to the newness of MOOCs and the small discipline size, the few existing hospitality and tourism examples is a limitation of this chapter. Regardless, the universality of distance learning and MOOCs extends to hospitality and tourism.

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Janne J. Liburd and Anne-Mette Hjalager

The aim of this original contribution is to present a model of institutional innovation and to apply it to tourism higher education. First, the concept of institutional innovation is introduced. Next, changes over the past five decades in tourism higher education and the curriculum are presented. They illustrate how innovations in tourism higher education have evolved in response to, but also in isolation from the larger society and socio-economic contexts in and by which tourism exists, which point to the presence and absence of institutional innovation. The model includes intuitive and strategic innovation approaches in tourism higher education and a juxtaposition of whether these approaches are aligned or detached. Offering a macro-perspective with innovative examples on tourism education and learning, this chapter dissects trends and issues for contemporary developments in tourism higher education by reference to the many contributions of this volume.

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Florian Aubke and Anja Hergesell

The role of social interactions in the student experience has long been acknowledged and forms the basis of many modern pedagogical approaches. The exploratory study presented in this chapter builds on the concept of network-based social capital and discusses network formation and network characteristics in an intercultural tourism student setting. Social capital describes the opportunities embedded in social relations, thus the resources of others, paired with social relations to these others, occupy critical significance. The dynamics of social network evolution and the consequences of network formations are highly context specific. Here, the interest lies in social relations among tourism students and the impact of those relations on student performance. Social network analysis is the methodological basis of this study, thus driving data collection as well as analysis. The study showed that the formation of relationships between students who recently commenced their studies does not occur randomly, but is largely driven by attribute similarities such as gender and nationality. The study also showed that network structure and student performance are associated – students who are sought after in friendship networks perform better in their studies. The objective of this chapter is to raise awareness among tourism educators of the importance of social capital building among students. Tourism educators, who are faced with an increasingly international and heterogeneous student base, may use the relational approach and findings presented here to engage the student body and foster social relations in the classroom to benefit the student experience.

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Patrick J. Holladay

Online teaching is becoming more important as digital technologies are expanding rapidly. The online teaching and educational environment has expanded into the realm of tourism. Online teaching should not be considered differently from traditional teaching – with the obvious exception of the technology needed. Teaching online should not be overly foreign or intimidating. The process of lesson planning and assessment is the same as in a face-to-face classroom. The most important thing to remember is that the learning outcomes, the activities to facilitate learning outcomes and the assessment of learning outcomes are equivalent to a traditional setting. The development of curriculum comes first and then the appropriate technology to deliver the curriculum is selected – never the other way around. This will ensure the constructive alignment of learning outcomes, activities and assessments. Equally important to planning is the understanding of the technology used to deliver the course materials. Digital literacy can be a challenge to both learners and instructors. This chapter recognizes that there must be inherent theoretical pluralism when addressing online learning. The theoretical underpinnings of this chapter draw from the constructivist learning model as applied to online learning as well as transformative, experiential and authentic e-learning. This chapter will first examine why online teaching in tourism is important and some theoretical foundations to support this assertion. Next, applications to curriculum and appropriate technologies – using the Teaching Education Futures Initiative five value sets framework – will be explained. Finally, some of the interesting future developments in online tourism teaching will be discussed.

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Freya Higgins-Desbiolles

This chapter offers an analysis of recent developments fostering the embedding of Indigenous content in the tourism curriculum. It is derived from both conceptual understandings and empirical work, based on: deep engagement with Indigenist research and pedagogy; experience in developing and offering an undergraduate course on the subject of the interface between tourism and Indigenous peoples; and a critical engagement with the literature on these issues. The justification for engaging in embedding Indigenous content in the tourism curriculum is largely twofold: a recognition of Indigenous rights and their application to tourism studies, and the multiple and significant benefits Indigenous perspectives and knowledges may offer the tourism field. As a result of more than ten years of offering this course, the chapter offers a set of recommendations for embedding Indigenous content in the tourism curriculum which have been developed from the experiences, insights and pedagogical learnings. These findings are particularly useful for institutions and groups who wish to consider the possibilities, best practices and benefits of embedding Indigenous content in their curriculum. But the example set in this niche of tourism studies does hold wider implications for the larger field of tourism studies. As argued here, engagement with Indigenous perspectives and worldviews shifts the focus of the curriculum from conventional tourism concerns of tourist demand and product development, to rights of host communities, social capacities of tourism and alternative paradigms. Thus it is argued here that engagement with the Indigenous interface with tourism can offer pathways to new perspectives which promise much for the development of tourism knowledge.

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Edited by Pierre Benckendorff and Anita Zehrer

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Georgios C. Papageorgiou

The chapter considers the features of the tourism curriculum before discussing the merits and challenges involved in attempting to assure the quality of academic practice by employing a standardization approach. While the inherent value and the direct or indirect contribution of quality assurance mechanisms to promoting educational quality are unequivocal, the chapter discusses a number of conceptual contradictions in approaches towards operationalizing these mechanisms (notably between consistency and conformity, setting optimum as opposed to minimum standards, and focusing on the spirit/principles rather than the letter/procedures of quality assurance mechanisms). It also observes that when the emphasis is primarily on accountability and verification rather than enhancement and excellence, a quality assurance system may not yield its maximum benefits. The chapter relates the discussion to existing research on tourism education and attempts to identify the influence of factors related to the requirements of the tourism and hospitality industry, to the priorities of educational establishments, to academic management and administration procedures, and to individual academics’ approaches.

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W. Glen Croy and John Willison

The focus of tourism programs on industry and career outcomes has raised concerns about opportunities to equip graduates with the ‘practical wisdom’ needed to be ‘philosophical practitioners’. It is proposed that the development of research skills could achieve some of these outcomes. A review of tourism graduate, employment and employability profiles highlights common demand for broadly characterized research skills. Reflecting the academics’ propositions, employers and graduates have also identified research skills as important. Research is a systematic process of learning, and is based upon six interrelated skills of: embarking and clarifying; finding and generating; evaluating and reflecting; organizing and managing; analyzing and synthesizing; and communicating and applying. The Research Skill Development (RSD) Framework combines these research skills with different levels of autonomy. The RSD is applied in tourism for research skill assessment, enhancement, and to design learning environments. Reflections highlight RSD advantages of clear and explicit setting of expectations, common conversation artifacts, time saving, and rewards for skill enhancements. In addition to adoption of the RSD, future direction should be for multiple student exposures to it. The use of RSD in tourism highlights many aspects needing consideration for its effective implementation.

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Massimo Morellato

The aim of this chapter is to offer a contribution on the changing trends in technology-enhanced learning and the development of digital competence in tourism education. It critiques the tendency to use digital instruments to position learners as passive ‘end-users’ of technologies adopted ‘for them’ by teachers and institutions. Without disregarding the relevance that technology-enhanced learning could have in developing information literacy in learners and sometime in educators, this chapter draws attention to a broader perspective. It is argued that engaging students as active producers in the employment of the latest technology in their studies and in the co-construction and mobilization of knowledge is of the utmost importance. This chapter advocates the need for better attention to the learning process rather than to the learning of products in online and mobile educational initiatives, and, further, to the need for attention to the ethical dimension of digital competence. The chapter presents a project conducted at a New Zealand university as an example of ‘rethinking’ technology-enhanced learning and the students’ online presence. The project uses a combination of experiential, collaborative and problem-based learning approaches where wikis, ePortfolios, iBooks and mobile augmented reality apps are used with a maieutic approach and a critical attitude of ‘healthy disenchantment’ rather than a glorification of the technology itself. Details about the project and reflections about emerged issues and implications are described to stimulate further discussion on the role of digital technologies in twenty-first-century learning. Lecturers and tutors might find in this chapter some similarities to or inspiration for their class activities, whilst program coordinators might benefit in their approach to multi-modal literacy and knowledge management as cross-disciplinary objectives.

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Ady Milman

The chapter discusses the role and responsibilities of the industry advisory board in academic settings and its impact on the curriculum. Following a discussion on the structure and membership of industry advisory boards, a review of the academic literature is presented with a summary of the major findings. The chapter also introduces a case study of The Rosen College’s Theme Park and Attraction Management Advisory Board and reports on a specific engagement exercise that the board members were involved in as an attempt to enhance the students’ academic experience. The board provided input in the areas of curriculum enhancement, development of student competencies, enhancement of the board’s engagement with the academic institution, and student interaction through guest lectures and other classroom activities.

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Julia Caldicott and Erica Wilson

There are calls in tourism higher education for alternative learning models that will produce graduates able to cope with the personal and work-related complexities of the twenty-first century. This chapter explores the concept of ‘self-authorship’, commonly described as the capacity to internally generate beliefs, identity and social relationships, and its potential role in tourism higher education. A term not widely known in tourism education literature, self-authorship has applicability for a range of university disciplines looking to prepare learners for their future professional, civic and personal lives. In this chapter, we argue that facilitating the development of self-authorship can deliver a more liberal and reflective tourism curriculum. Work-integrated learning (WIL), a common component in tourism curricula, is discussed with regard to the role it can play in fostering self-authorship development. Whilst WIL is generally regarded as a way of increasing the ‘employability’ outcomes of tourism graduates, such a narrow view may overlook the potential outcomes of WIL. A self-authorship perspective may expand this view by encouraging learners to be more critical in their decision-making processes if underpinned by an awareness of their approaches to knowledge and relationships with self and others.

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David Airey and Pierre Benckendorff

Over the last few decades changes in funding and access to higher education in many developed countries have resulted in enormous changes that have impacted both directly and indirectly on teaching and learning. A shift in funding from the state to the learner and the escalation of university participation rates have resulted in increased scrutiny from governments, parents, students, employers and other stakeholders. In many countries government scrutiny has been facilitated by changes to regulatory frameworks and quality assurance processes. The combination of external scrutiny and competitive pressure has transformed the standards and quality assurance environment for all aspects of higher education, including tourism education. The aim of this chapter is to explore the background, nature and implications of some of these changes, particularly as they relate to standards and quality assurance for tourism education. The chapter will examine the notion of quality standards and will provide an overview of common approaches to quality assurance frameworks and controls in higher education. The focus is largely on teaching and learning standards in the United Kingdom and Australia, although reference will be made to other standards and countries. Attention is drawn to the performance of the tourism field against some of these standards and frameworks. Issues related to the development, integration and assessment of standards are explored and implications for teaching and learning in tourism are discussed.

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Peter Wiltshier and Sarah Rawlinson

Over the past decade the University of Derby has invested in learning, teaching and assessment using experiential or work-based learning. Moreover, we have created a specific tool to identify, implement and review work-based learning, which we call a learning laboratory. Within a university learning laboratory (ULL) stakeholders develop shared teaching and learning projects that meet the core needs of skills and knowledge development for our students. There is a strong correlation between student achievement, partners’ satisfaction with tasks achieved through the work-based learning and prospects for research, consultancy and graduate student recruitment. In this chapter we explore the literature that relates to success in outcomes from work-based learning and examine the practical steps needed to establish learning laboratories. We conclude with a review of accomplishments from learning labs and address possible barriers to be overcome in future. Our approach is social constructivist in nature. We reflect on constructs that we used to explore opportunities to bring higher education learning closer to contemporary practices in work in tourism management. Special attention is paid to the stages of developing learning laboratories and critical evaluation of the process and outcome.

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Monika Birkle, Eva Holmberg, Marina Karlqvist and Jarmo Ritalahti

Motivation of students is generally seen as the key to good learning but it can also be seen as an outcome of a suitable pedagogical approach chosen by the educators. Motivation and interest are the key elements in inquiry learning, which is the pedagogical approach implemented on Haaga-Helia Porvoo Campus. In inquiry learning learners are expected to actively create knowledge in real life development projects, requiring them to take responsibility for their own learning process. If students are not motivated to actively proceed in the project, teachers have to find tools to enhance the process. Thus a deeper understanding of the factors influencing the motivation of the students at universities of applied sciences is needed. This chapter reports on factors influencing the motivation of students working in an inquiry learning project in order to identify motivational factors that should be considered in designing successful learning situations. Data were collected by asking the students involved in the project to write essays about their motivation in the project, as well as by organizing focus groups with the students when the project finished. The findings indicate that student motivation was mainly influenced by extrinsic motivations such as the other members in the team, the nature of the project, and the feedback from the teachers and the commissioner during the process. Factors related to intrinsic motivations such as need for self-development as well as eagerness to learn were, on the other hand, rarely mentioned in the data analyzed.

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Ruth Craggs, Catherine Gorman, Kevin Griffin, Ziene Mottiar, Bernadette Quinn and Theresa Ryan

Cognisant of the importance of student engagement in education being an international concern, this chapter outlines a project to enhance student engagement undertaken at the Dublin Institute of Technology in Ireland. The ‘Students in Action Project’ involved students from a range of programs and modules in the School of Hospitality and Tourism working with the local community and businesses of two tourism destinations: Slane, Co. Meath and Drogheda, Co. Louth in Ireland. The aim was to involve students in an active collaborative learning environment using a destination-based approach to define the parameters of engagement and collaboration and identify ways in which tourism and hospitality within the destination could be enhanced. In contrast to many previous studies on student engagement, the destination-based approach takes a more holistic view by including local industry, industry groups as well as civic and broader community members as key components of the destination. This chapter outlines the motivations underpinning the project, the process involved, and reflects on the benefits, limitations and lessons learnt. Outcomes beyond those intended arose from engaging with stakeholders outside the educational institution. The project has been a steep learning curve for all, and ongoing planning, negotiation and reflection are essential to the process. Fundamentally, all participants – staff, students and destination stakeholders – agreed that the rich outputs justified the effort involved.

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Philip L. Pearce

Using some of the concepts of tourism study itself – gaze, emotional labor and critical perspectives – this chapter considers the roles, realities and relationships which underpin supervision at the doctoral level in tourism. The analysis is buttressed by key studies from the now broad array of material written about the supervision process. It is argued that the tourism PhD is a distinct entity with a specific array of challenges in its production and management. These challenges include considering the value and the ethics of the work, meeting the suspicious gaze of sometimes hostile outsiders, and managing the task itself, frequently on a limited budget. The skills of the supervisor and the kind of work they do are represented as high-level emotional, aesthetic and performative labor requiring flexibility and sensitivity to deal with the varied kinds of students who seek to earn a doctorate in tourism. Additionally, the analysis of a sample of micro-cases from the direct experience of the author suggest that supervisors in tourism need to be confident about the whole PhD process and enthusiastic about publishing, as well as possessing a substantial but evolving knowledge base and a solid set of technical skills. Increasingly, supervisors need to be aware of how to manage external and institutional pressures, and be organized but flexible in their approach to different student needs. There is a cliché that the student –supervisor relationship is one of the most enduring in a student’s life; you can get married, divorced, even change your gender, but you have your PhD supervisor as a constant shaping your career. Charged with this unique role, supervisors in tourism now have the opportunity to learn from one another as they create supportive and informed environments for quality work at the postgraduate level. The rewards for all parties are arguably the greatest in any teaching and learning context.

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Debbie Cotterell, Charles Arcodia and Jo-Anne Ferreira

An important outcome of a university business education is shaping individuals who are capable of working in and operating businesses that deliver economically profitable, socially responsible and ecologically viable services. In preparing future sustainable tourism workers, universities also need to design curricula that develop the learners’ skills in critical thinking and foreseeing the implications of their actions, along with a sense of ethics and empathy. Research evidence indicates, however, that learners often graduate without these skills. A possible reason for this may be that the design of tourism curricula is based on a weak conceptualization of sustainability (e.g. triple bottom line) as opposed to a strong conceptualization of sustainability. Another possible reason could be that educators are not successfully cultivating the learners’ capabilities to think in more complex ways about sustainability nor do they adequately engage with the ways in which learners make sense of the concept. This chapter discusses the strength of the conceptualizations of sustainability currently underpinning university undergraduate tourism courses. The aim is to outline how learners might acquire knowledge about sustainability and to examine the potential of current pedagogy within Education for Sustainability (EfS) for teaching more complex understandings of sustainability. Novel teaching and learning approaches are discussed including systems thinking, which enables a strong conceptualization of sustainability, and variation theory, which uses the learners’ understandings as the starting point for learning. Future directions for EfS in tourism are also reflected upon. This chapter argues that universities are capable of ensuring that graduates are prepared for working in the sustainable tourism industry if they become more mindful of the ways in which they teach – and the ways in which learners learn – about sustainability.

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Johan R. Edelheim

Teaching and research are the foundation of a teacher’s work in both higher education as well as in other modes of education. Teaching seems self-evident – it is even part of the title of the profession – to be a teacher is what we first and foremost started off doing: ‘to teach’ in order for others ‘to learn’. Research is also on the surface easy to understand, but has, on closer inspection, plenty of different meanings. This chapter will investigate the connection between these two concepts. The purpose of the chapter is to illuminate not only how teaching is inextricably linked with research, but how this is emphasized differently in different settings, and in different understandings of ‘teaching’ or ‘research’. The key approach I will take in investigating these matters is by unraveling the etymology and different meanings of the words, and based on these findings show how they shape practice. I will thereafter touch upon the debates surrounding the teaching–research nexus (TRN). The chapter is rounded off with an empirical case showing an institute teaching TH & E in three separate dimensions. The institute is analyzed using the Curriculum Space model and a Curriculum Design TRN model, which will practically illustrate implications for teaching and learning theory; it will challenge earlier ideas about TRN being purely a matter of concern for higher education, and it will suggest new ways of creating inclusive curricula and useful cooperation.

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John C. Crotts

Hospitality and tourism organizations invest a considerable amount of time and resources in recruiting and training sales managers. However, few universities are responding to this marketing demand by providing courses in sales management. The intent of this chapter is to expand educators’ awareness of the importance of this competency area to our field and of how to teach it to our students. It is my hope that sales education will be improved, and that more faculty will be drawn to the field of sales and negotiations, not only for teaching but also for rigorous research.

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Dimitrios P. Stergiou and David Airey

Tourism employers are discovering that their workforce requires certain skills that tourism graduates seem to be missing. Identifying industry expectations for tourism graduates is an important step in developing tourism curricula that are responsive to industry needs. Educational institutions are therefore encouraged to incorporate key skills in their curricula. This chapter represents an effort to create an interface between the industry and higher education institutions. It reports on the findings of an interview study conducted with tourism professionals who represent various sectors of the tourism industry in Athens, Greece. The geographic area was chosen for its representation of a number of tourism sectors. The study asked about the industry’s expectations regarding education and skills of tourism graduates entering the workplace. The chapter presents background information from the literature regarding international and Greek experiences, and the methodology employed within the study. Study findings identify specific industry expectations for tourism graduates and suggest that there is a considerable gap between what is taught in tourism education and what is actually needed and required by the industry. These findings replicate and complement those of previous studies in the vocational link of tourism courses in Greece. Taken together, these efforts offer a useful and cross-validated view of the demands tourism graduates are facing, and a mandate to tourism educators to develop tourism curricula in response to them. The chapter suggests that incorporating industry input in the curriculum will allow tourism education to provide an improved service for its graduates and tourism employers.

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Chris Fanning, Ceri Macleod and Lynn Vanzo

The value of work-integrated learning (WIL) in linking theory and practice is well documented, particularly in professional degree programs such as nursing, law, social work and education, where professional practice has long been incorporated into the curriculum. But what of those disciplines not professionally mandated, those not requiring the completion of a practical component before the graduate enters the workplace? How much value is WIL to students when an industry does not explicitly stipulate the inclusion and subsequent nature of WIL activities? This chapter considers the example of the Flinders University tourism degree, which incorporates a variety of compulsory WIL activities, despite the fact that they are not mandated by the tourism industry. The chapter will focus on responses to a questionnaire targeted at graduates, which questioned how useful students found the practical component of their degree to be, and why this was the case. Results indicate that completion of these WIL activities is regarded as a significant and mutually beneficial component of the degree by students, the tourism industry and the university, with a significant subsequent impact on student employability. By examining student perceptions of WIL activities completed as part of this degree, we will consider the ‘value’ of WIL to students, from very early stages in terms of selecting where and what to study, to linking theory and practice during the course of their studies, and finally in reflecting on their subsequent employability.

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Wendy L. Watson, Jesse Hamner, Elizabeth A. Oldmixon and Kimi King

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Heidi Maurer

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Clodagh Harris

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E. Fletcher McClellan

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Kinga Kas and Elizabeth Sheppard

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William J. Miller

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Kerstin Hamann

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Andreas Broscheid

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Mark A. Boyer and Elizabeth T. Smith

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J. Simon Rofe

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John Ishiyama and Robert G. Rodriguez

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Elizabeth A. Bennion

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Michael P. Marks

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Gabriela Pleschová

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Erkki Berndtson