What are the constraints on the political communication of party organizations? And just how much are candidates and parties spending on communication and propaganda? This chapter is an attempt to begin answering these questions. It starts by noting the scarcity of reliable and detailed comparative data on this topic before reviewing the different modes of partisan propaganda and the factors that can explain how parties and candidates can be incentivized to use more modes than others depending on the context. We observe that the behavior of parties and candidates is indeed shaped by the structure of the political system, cultural norms or the dynamics of the party system wherein they operate. To a certain extent, they are also dependent on access to certain technology. Finally, what is the impact of statutory and regulatory constraints on political communication? How does campaign finance regulation more broadly influence the contours of the electoral competition? These are some of the questions that this chapter proposes to address in a final section and conclusion.
Alix Meyer and Eric Phélippeau
Edited by Laura J. Spence, Jedrzej G. Frynas, Judy N. Muthuri and Jyoti Navare
Claire M. Leitch and Richard T. Harrison
Theory and Applications
Eve Mitleton-Kelly, Alexandros Paraskevas and Christopher Day
Insights from When Things Go Wrong
Edited by Keith Townsend and Mark N.K. Saunders
Interpretive Approaches to the EU
Starting from a definition of constructivism and its uses in European integration, the chapter analyses the promises and limits of the approach for public policy studies at the EU level. The constructivist turn allowed for asking new questions with regard to European integration, such as, how do cognitive frames shape policies in the specific institutional context? Why do actors act as they do, beyond purely cost–benefit-based analysis, or in other words why do they define policy problems in a specific way? The answers to these questions helped to understand European integration not only as a federalist system, a functionalistic spillover project, or an intergovernmental entity whose progress is dependent on member state interests, but as a complex political system in which interests were embedded in cognitive frames. However, EU constructivist approaches slightly underestimated the power of actors to pick and choose adequate framings to defend their preferences. This limit was tackled in the most recent actor-centred perspective of constructivism which the chapter develops in more detail.