Robert P. Merges and Amy L. Landers
Maurice Adams, Jaakko Husa and Marieke Oderkerk
Janet E. Milne
A consumer survey, as an instrument used to gather data on the beliefs and attitudes of consumers towards trademarks or products, is considered to have vital influence in trademark litigation. In recent years, courts have come to rely increasingly on the results of surveys conducted by one or both litigants in trademark lawsuits. The practical issue for trademark litigants is determining whether, when and how to develop survey evidence, given the cost, time, and other constraints. To shed light on this specific issue, we undertook a statistical analysis of trademark infringement cases in China. By examining 17 836 cases decided by China's courts over a 16-year period from 2001 through 2016, this article presents an empirical study assessing the statistical relationship between the presentation of survey evidence and case outcomes. The goal of our study is to help trademark litigants to determine the importance and value of presenting consumer surveys in trademark infringement case and make more informed decisions about their litigation strategies.
Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio
Roger E.A. Farmer
This paper explains the connection between ideas developed in my recent books and papers and those of economists who self-identify as post-Keynesians. My own work is both neoclassical and ‘old Keynesian.’ Much of my published work assumes that people have rational expectations and that ‘animal spirits’ should be modeled as a new fundamental. I adopt a general equilibrium framework to model the macroeconomy. But although I write from a neoclassical tradition the themes I explore in my published writing have much in common with heterodox economics. This paper explains the common elements between these seemingly disparate traditions. I make the case for unity between post-Keynesian and general equilibrium theory under the banner of post-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium theory.