Marshall S. Shapo
Edited by Luiz F. Mesquita, Roberto Ragozzino and Jeffrey J. Reuer
Michael Howlett and Ishani Mukherjee
The introductory chapter provides a brief overview of the central questions that have inspired policy formulation research in the policy sciences. Distinguishing policy formulation as that activity in the policy process during which policy-makers craft solutions for identified problems, the chapter depicts public policies as being, in essence, government efforts to affect changes in their own or in public behaviour. Formulation is portrayed in this chapter as the result of an interplay of knowledge-based analytics and power-based politics as governments act on articulating feasible policy options to meet social goals, resulting in complex assemblages of policy aims and policy means that are unique to each jurisdiction. The chapter also explains the organizational logic behind how the contributions of this Handbook have been organized.
Anthony M. Messina
Migration truly is a global phenomenon. Moreover, even in the current challenging economic environment international migration flows of all types are robust. Against this backdrop this chapter executes several tasks. First, it assesses the benefits and costs of each of the four major migration streams: labour, secondary, irregular, and humanitarian migration. Second, it posits a course along which the contemporary politics and policies of migration and immigrant settlement tends to proceed. Finally, it evaluates the appropriateness of framing the phenomenon of contemporary migration within the paradigm of securitization. The central thesis of this essay is that the purported global ‘crisis of migration’ is less of an objective, unrelenting, and universal emergency of unavoidable and unwelcome migration outcomes than it is a subjective, episodic, and selective set of challenges mostly founded upon unrealistic and/or contradictory migration expectations. The pertinent questions posed by contemporary migration and immigrant settlement patterns therefore are not why migration occurs, why do countries tolerate unwanted migration, and how do migrants precipitate societal and/or state insecurity; instead, they are: why don’t more people migrate, why do most migrants settle in relatively few countries, and why are migrants almost universally cast as a threat to states and societies?
Brian D. Israel, Jean Martin, Kelly Smith Fayne and Lauren Daniel
Despite myriad methodological shortcomings, some economists continue to advocate for the use of contingent valuation (CV) and other survey methods to estimate non-use values of natural resources. Federal regulatory agencies also continue to explore these methodologies, although both the OPA and CERCLA regulations strongly disfavor their application, and no court has actually relied upon a CV or a similar study to determine the value of natural resource damages. Indeed, several courts have refused to admit CV studies into evidence, ruling that the studies were not an accurate or reliable measure of actual loss. The better and more reliable approach for valuing natural resource loss, from both a legal and policy perspective, is based on the cost of projects needed to repair, replace, or return injured natural resources to baseline conditions where practicable, and compensate for the temporary or interim loss of resources until restoration is complete.