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Adrian Briggs

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Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio

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Linda Silberman

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Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio

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Silvia Suteu

This chapter aims to provide initial answers to the basic question of whether and how participation in constitution-making delivers for women. The chapter proceeds by first outlining the contours of the debate surrounding popular participation in constitution-making, identifying the benefits and potential pitfalls such participation may yield. The chapter then looks at three instances of popular involvement in constitutional change: the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, the 2012-14 Irish Constitutional Convention and the 2011-14 Tunisian constitution-making experience, analysing the level and nature of women’s participation in all these processes. Subsequently, the chapter evaluates the successes and failures of participatory mechanisms such as referendums, constitutional conventions and public consultations in empowering women as equal participants, and their ability to ensure gender-sensitive deliberations. The chapter also raises questions as to whether participation is to be resorted to in all cases of constitutional reform and the propensity for it to be an obstacle to, rather than a vehicle for, gender equality.

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Tim Congdon

Most analyses of the Great Recession have blamed it on weaknesses of banking systems, notably excessive losses and a lack of capital. However, this mainstream approach is far from convincing, as most banks had higher capital/asset ratios ahead of the crisis than on average in recent decades. An alternative argument – that the falls in asset prices and slump in demand were due to a crash in the rate of money growth – is proposed, and is shown to be applicable to the main countries.

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Stephen Castles

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Albert N. Link and John T. Scott

The paper is an exploratory study of science parks in the United States. It models the history of science parks as the diffusion of an innovation that was adopted at a rapid and increasing rate in the early 1980s, and since then at a decreased rate.

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Edited by David Mangan and Lorna E. Gillies

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Edited by David Mangan and Lorna E. Gillies