The rural land rights system which has persisted in the separation of the ownership, contract right and the right of management seems to be a self-evident axiom because it has as its theoretical basis the theory of defense, the operation in practice and the support of policies. But the theory of “separation of three rights” is faced with many difficulties: legal logic is upside down; policy interpretation is in doubt and many problems exist in practice. The root of the trouble is the security function and the properties of this function; the values of fairness and efficiency are set in the right to the contracted management of the land system, and different degrees ignore the function of the collective land ownership system. The direction of the reform should take the path of holistic thinking, reviewing and constructing the land rights system function design and mutual assistance between different systems. The particular way should be to improve the power of the nature of the right to the contracted management of land property rights, making these real property rights; under the framework of collective land ownership an enriched member right should have properties, making it a reliable protection foundation, and should actively follow up in supporting the security system.
Maria Karamessini, Maria Symeonaki, Dimitris Parsanoglou and Glykeria Stamatopoulou
The objective of this chapter is to map the extent of the various forms of early job insecurity using cross-sectional data and existing and new indicators. The variations in early job insecurity across European countries before and during the crisis are examined using the available raw micro data behind the European Union’s Labour Force Survey for the years 2008 and 2015 (latest available data at the time). By examining flow data between labour market states and entry probabilities from school to the labour market, the chapter compares patterns of labour market entry by individuals aged 15_29 during the crisis and before the crisis. Different indicators are estimated, all of which are linked to diverse dimensions of early job insecurity, and a composite index of early job insecurity is introduced. Countries are sorted according to the estimated composite indicator and the impact of the crisis is considered.
Veneta Krasteva, Ann McDonnell and Ida Tolgensbakk
Migration is an important phenomenon at both the macro and the micro levels. It shapes national economies as well as individual biographies across Europe, while freedom of movement and residence have been a cornerstone of the EU project from the very beginning. When Europeans move from one place to another, they often travel rather short distances, and the move is often temporary. For many, migration is an episode in early adulthood. This chapter examines the stories of three such temporary migrants and the networks involved in their migration. We utilize a life-course approach to discuss their journey out, as well as their return to the country of origin. What are the subjective consequences of such migration experiences in the specific context of European youth unemployment? Both negative and positive experiences add up and contribute to a fuller picture of the increasingly transnational nature of the lives of young Europeans.
Dawit Shawel Abebe and Christer Hyggen
Applying data from the Young in Norway longitudinal survey, this chapter investigates how exposure to early unemployment episodes and individual and family characteristics during adolescence causally moderate long-term labour market outcomes in terms of employment and wage status in young adulthood. Specifically, we analyse the moderating effects of gender, level of education, parental socioeconomic status and psychological well-being. Findings from this study reveal that an early unemployment episode is a causal risk factor for unemployment and income inequality during young adulthood. This implies that early unemployment episodes may be regarded as a main pathway leading to the development of unemployment and wage scarring. However, unemployment cuts deeper and leaves more visible scars on some than on others. Gender, level of education, parental socioeconomic status and psychological well-being all moderate the effects of an early unemployment episode on long-term labour market outcomes.
Well-being, Scarring and Resilience of European Youth
Edited by Bjørn Hvinden, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mi A. Schoyen and Christer Hyggen
Ondřej Hora, Markéta Horáková and Tomáš Sirovátka
This chapter identifies how different countries responded to the challenges of early job insecurity and the extent to which their responses were appropriate to the problems they faced at the time. The chapter is based on quantitative and qualitative information: various international and national databases, the national reports of the NEGOTIATE project, diverse national sources from ministries, and journal articles on policy development in nine European countries. We claim that reforms in most countries favoured (although differently) the work-first approach regarding the labour market entry of young people, although often through insecure, precarious (temporary) jobs that are rarely ‘stepping stones’ to stable jobs of good quality. The crisis served as a stimulus to the prevailing flexibilization trend, which is strongest (paradoxically) in the countries of the sub-protective regime. Such policies were not adequate to deal with the magnitude and character of the problem of early job insecurity.