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Edited by Gregory M. Randolph, Michael T. Tasto and Robert F. Salvino Jr.

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J. Stanley Metcalfe and Ronnie Ramlogan

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Jill J. McCluskey and Jason Winfree

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Wendy Collins Perdue

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Henrique Schneider

The chapter provides the background on the economics of this book, on the ‘sharing economy’ and how Uber can be assessed as an economic agent. This book understands markets as open-ended undetermined series of exchanges between a potentially unlimited number of agents. These agents engage voluntarily in the different market processes without knowing more than the other agents but judging their own beliefs, preferences and costs subjectively. Agents use the market processes in order to learn about other agents’ beliefs, preferences and costs. Market processes are cooperative actions. Whatever might be labelled the sharing economy relies on these market processes and does not in any way fundamentally change them. The sharing economy is not different from the traditional economy; to the contrary, it applies and broadens the application of market processes and individual actions. However, the role that technology plays is important. With the development of online networking, e- and online payment methods as well as individual online mobility, many business models gain scale and scope. Technology often makes it possible to diminish costs of participating in a market process, to learn quickly or gather information in a timely manner as well as to scale up some market processes. Uber, in due entrepreneurial spirit, seized this opportunity and turned it into a successful business model.
Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

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Frédérique Six and Koen Verhoest

This edited volume is the first endeavour to systematically investigate the role of trust in the different relations within regulatory regimes. Trust as a multifaceted concept is contested within public administration and political science in general and especially within the relation between regulator and regulated party. The aim of this book is to scope the field and to set the agenda for further research. In this introductory chapter we map the different relations within regulatory regimes and review empirical research into the role of trust within the different relations. Our review reveals several themes that we address in the different empirical chapters and in the research agenda formulated in the concluding chapter.
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Dimitrios P. Stergiou and David Airey

Tourism employers are discovering that their workforce requires certain skills that tourism graduates seem to be missing. Identifying industry expectations for tourism graduates is an important step in developing tourism curricula that are responsive to industry needs. Educational institutions are therefore encouraged to incorporate key skills in their curricula. This chapter represents an effort to create an interface between the industry and higher education institutions. It reports on the findings of an interview study conducted with tourism professionals who represent various sectors of the tourism industry in Athens, Greece. The geographic area was chosen for its representation of a number of tourism sectors. The study asked about the industry’s expectations regarding education and skills of tourism graduates entering the workplace. The chapter presents background information from the literature regarding international and Greek experiences, and the methodology employed within the study. Study findings identify specific industry expectations for tourism graduates and suggest that there is a considerable gap between what is taught in tourism education and what is actually needed and required by the industry. These findings replicate and complement those of previous studies in the vocational link of tourism courses in Greece. Taken together, these efforts offer a useful and cross-validated view of the demands tourism graduates are facing, and a mandate to tourism educators to develop tourism curricula in response to them. The chapter suggests that incorporating industry input in the curriculum will allow tourism education to provide an improved service for its graduates and tourism employers.
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Christian Livi, Pedro Araujo and Olivier Crevoisier

Based on two case studies, this chapter studies the articulation between sustainable innovations and territories. Using the conventionalist approach, and in particular the idea of the sustainability convention, this chapter analyses the territorial, economic and social dynamics of sustainable innovations in Western Switzerland’s photovoltaic industry and sustainable finance. The main result is that, contrary to ‘classical milieus’ where the innovative efforts are mainly on the supply side, sustainable innovations redefine considerably the relations with consumers, users and even citizens. The chapter concludes with a reflection on the concept of innovative milieu and its cognitive, financial and discursive aspects.
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Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Up to this point, this manual has discussed how much disposable income a reference size family needs to be able to afford a basic but decent standard of living. However, almost all countries have statutory deductions from pay that need to be taken into account to ensure that workers have sufficient take home pay. Chapter 14 discusses various statutory deductions from pay such as income tax, social security, worker contributions to national health schemes, etc. and indicates how to take them into account in estimating a living wage. The chapter distinguishes between voluntary deductions from pay such as Christmas savings funds (which is treated as ordinary expenditure), personal deductions from pay which apply to only some individuals such as loan repayment or alimony (which are also treated as ordinary expenditure), and statutory deductions from pay such as for taxes or social security paid by all workers. Statutory deductions from pay are taken into consideration in the calculation of a living wage estimate in the Anker methodology. This is important because statutory deductions from pay can be considerable even in poor countries and for workers with low wages. Since statutory deductions vary from country to country and sometimes even between locations within countries, calculating the amount of statutory deductions needs to be location-specific. A hypothetical example is provided of how this calculation should be made in a country with a fairly simple tax code.