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A legacy of discrimination

Becoming America

Roger White

We introduce our topic and provide an overview of the book. We posit a clear bias in U.S. immigration policy that favored entry from Europe and, notably, from Northern and Western European countries until the enactment of the Hart-Celler Act in 1968 (i.e., the Immigration Act of 1965). Only in recent decades have there been a significant increase in the number of annual immigrant arrivals and a considerable shift in the source countries and regions of immigrant arrivals to the U.S. towards Asia, Latin American and the Caribbean, and, to a lesser extent, Africa. We contend that many recent immigrant arrivals to the U.S. have entered a country that is quite culturally dissimilar from their countries of origin. However, through acculturation there has been a movement of U.S. culture away from that of the more traditional European immigrant source countries and towards the cultures of the more recent arrivals’ home countries.

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Jared Rubin

Chapter 1 examines how a polity evolved without anything resembling a corporation law. In the Islamic world, corporations did not develop until the mid-19th century, even though it was economically far ahead of Europe for centuries. Taking the Ottoman Empire as a case study, Jared Rubin attributes this to a dampening effect of Islamic law—being careful, however, to note that his argument is not that ‘Islam is incapable of change or it is some inherent Islamic conservatism that is at fault.’ Rather, he argues, in Islamic polities rulers’ legitimacy rested heavily on the clerical establishment, and resulted in large areas of law being ceded to that establishment—including commercial law. Yet, while Islamic law provided for partnerships, those partnerships were dissolved on a partner’s death, and inheritance law provided for distribution of the partner’s assets to heirs by a fixed formula. These inflexible rules hindered the growth of large-scale partnerships similar to those that, in Europe, slowly led to joint-stock companies and then corporations. In sum, the power arrangement that left commercial law to the clerical establishment ultimately blocked the development of corporations as well as other commercial arrangements that, in Europe, helped spur economic growth.

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Introduction: surf’s up

Surfing the Digital Wave

Peter J. Rimmer and Booi Hon Kam

Digital technology has rewritten the script for product consumption, changed business operations and altered the consumer's view of logistics. The rise of online purchasing and growth of omnichannels have repositioned the role of logistics in the consumer’s purchasing journey. Increasingly, consumers are playing a bigger role in helping themselves to achieve the 7Rs — right product, quantity, condition, place, time, cost and customer — to satisfy their desire to obtain products and services at the speed of now. Their growing contribution in the last-mile supply chain is the crux of 'Consumer Logistics'. Digitization, aided by the Internet of Things and 3D Printing, is further edging Consumer Logistics into the realm of crowdsourcing. This book captures the imminent change in supply chain practice by recapping the evolutionary journey of logistics management dating back to the 1950s and revealing challenges businesses face as consumers continue to expand their roles in the last-mile supply chain.

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James K. Beggan and Scott T. Allison

As an area of study, the intersection between leadership and sexuality has not been adequately addressed, despite the importance of sexual issues influencing leadership processes. To address this limitation, this chapter introduces three distinct ways in which to understand sexuality and leadership. One way is in terms of sexual leaders, i.e., individuals or organizations that put forward new ideas about how people should embrace their sexuality. The second way relates to how leaders, regardless of the industry or environment in which they lead, must think about the way that sexuality influences how they should govern. The third area, the sexuality of leaders, focuses on how the sexual desires that people have or the decisions they make may be influenced by their role as leaders.

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Thomas Vesting

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Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn and Silke Tegtmeier

This chapter aims – both through the chapters included in this volume and by revisiting some of the earlier volumes – to take stock and elaborate on the possible future directions for European entrepreneurship research. The chapter suggests the features of European entrepreneurship research contextual embeddedness, methodological diversity and distinctive clusters that, in combination, have resulted in versatile contributions that characterize the European entrepreneurship research field.

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Introduction: contracting human rights

Crisis, Accountability, and Opportunity

Alison Brysk

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Introduction and overview

Using Foreign Aid to Delegate Global Security

Jean-Paul Azam and Véronique Thelen