A legal cycle is legislation that takes effect contingently, where contingent factors are ex ante known to fluctuate with some level of predictable regularity. Apart from broad constitutional mandate, lawmakers have historically and suboptimally responded to legal cycles with general and patchwork patterns of legislation involving repeal, amendment, and new enactment. This is true across nearly all domains of codified law. This chapter develops a normative theory of how lawmakers should respond to legal cycles by setting forth the optimal architecture of stabilization rules. Under a general set of conditions, stabilization rules work toward smoothing fluctuations in rulemaking and exert downward pressure on short-term legislative pathologies that result from cognitive bias and interest group politics. The potential of welfare-enhancing stabilization rules is discussed across banking law, budget law, environmental law, health law, national security law, and criminal sentencing. Keywords: timing rules, contingent law, legal cycles, stabilization rules, climate change, budget law, availability bias
John Rennie Short
This chapter introduces the idea of the Third Urban Revolution and the contemporary urban moment. It outlines how cities are a crucial juncture for political economy and civil society, the setting for new subjectivities and the platform for progressive social change, and provides an introduction to the chapters in the book. Keywords: urban moment, third urban revolution, cities, urbanization
Chapter 1 (by Greve) sets the scene for the book by examining the various definitions of the concepts of evaluation and best evidence and looks at the different models involved. He then presents an overview of the content of the book, which is divided into three parts: I: What Evaluation Is and Examples of Methods, focusing on the definition of evaluation and the different methods; II: Evaluation and Policy, with a focus on evaluation and policy-making; and Part III: Evaluation of Concrete Social Policy Areas, which looks at the present state of the art within different central welfare policies. The chapter ends with a discussion on the book’s limitations.
Chapter 1 introduces the book, sets out the scope and aims, and outlines the research questions and methodology. A common framework for analysing each of the regimes is explained and justified, with reference to the scholarship of international law, international political economy and global politics. Chapter 1 also outlines and distinguishes between regions and subregions in Asia, and discusses environmental regimes in the literatures. It considers the geography of Asia as a region and the environmental issues it faces, examining the numerous international and regional institutions that operate there. It also reviews the discourse and scholarship in connection with regions and subregions developed by these institutions and by academic commentators, with a focus on the development of further institutions to respond to the needs identified. The notion and practicality of regime effectiveness is also considered. Keywords: Asia, subregions, environment, regime, effectiveness
This chapter outlines the core focus of this book, namely the malleability of the structures that underpin poverty and inequality in post-conflict states. It defines what is meant by ‘post-conflict’ for the purposes of the book and argues that certain structural and post-conflict variables have been insufficiently included in fourth-generation transitional justice.