In the academic world as well as in international development, after many years of being marginal, corruption has resurfaced as a major issue. This chapter outlines our understanding of corruption as a type of particularistic social allocation of public resources. It defines it in opposition to distribution based on ethical universalism and as the outcome of equilibrium between opportunities for corruption and constraints on elite behavior. We define what we understand as a virtuous circle—the passage from extractive to inclusive institutions—and why we decided to study them in this book. Throughout this chapter, we also explain step by step how we identified the criteria for contemporary achievers that managed to establish virtuous circles, and argue for the selection of the case studies presented in this volume. The chapter argues for a diagnostic tool nested in quantitative evidence and presents the different indicators that we can use in this context. Furthermore, the narrative presents two paths to better equilibria between opportunities and constraints. The paths look at the modernization of the state and the modernization of society. In this chapter we set the scene for the in-depth case studies offered in this volume. We trace evidence of why certain countries managed to establish virtuous circles and whether these changes are sustainable. In comparing results we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the paths to good governance.
Creating Virtuous Circles of Anti-corruption
The chapter offers to the reader an insightful description of opposing, sometimes overlapping, nationalist projects in Europe. Beginning from the Enlightenment, the narrative focuses first on the main makers of nationalism (ideas of freedom, group homogeneity, collective culture and standardized language, centralization). It then describes some of the most relevant personalities that influenced the debate and the praxis of national and federal strategies around Europe. A special emphasis is given to the effects that Italian and German unifications had on revolutionary aspirations of nationalist movements. Finally the chapter presents the dynamics that led to the transformation of these ideals from political opposition to state ideology and imperialism. Within this framework, the Polish-Lithuanian and the Serbo-Croatian expectations for federal or ethno-national arrangements are analysed as key examples of multiple, opposing, national projects.
A Handbook on New Methods of Law Making in Private Law
Roger Brownsword, Rob A. J. van Gestel and Hans-W. Micklitz
Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez, Alexandra Tsvetkova and Alessandra Faggian
This introductory chapter synthesizes the arguments presented by the book contributors and argues that a broad definition of innovation systems is appropriate in the context of developing and transition countries. By weaving in specific examples from the chapters, the introduction demonstrates the importance of a context-specific approach that takes into account sociocultural context, macroeconomic structures and institutions. Taken as a whole, the book shows how the system level of National Innovation Systems (NIS) influences the way firms and other actors build up competences and learn, while the outcomes of interactions among these actors at the micro level shape the NIS environment.
Jacob A. Bikker and Laura Spierdijk
Data Privacy, Sovereign Powers and the Rule of Law
Radim Polcak and Dan J.B. Svantesson
A Comparative Study
Gordon Anderson, Douglas Brodie and Joellen Riley
The introduction takes up David Marsden’s argument that the rise of the modern business enterprise relies on two great innovations: limited liability and the contract of employment. It outlines the authors’ objective to analyse the character of the contract of employment in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand and to examine the interrelationship between the contract of employment and the political, economic and social dynamics that have shaped the employment environment in each jurisdiction. Keywords comparative employment law, contract of employment
Mellani Day, Mary C. Boardman and Norris F. Krueger
The introduction to this handbook presents an overview of issues that will be introduced in the rest of the chapters with respect to the nascent field of neuroentrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship researchers have begun to investigate brain-based research methods; however, hurdles such as a lack of familiarity with and training in neuroscience research design and implementation, along with interpretation of reactions in the brain to stimuli in laboratory experiments, has prevented any wide-scale adoption of these methods. Initial questions that neuroscientists wrestle with, and that those who would focus on brain-based research should consider, such as philosophical stance on brain versus mind and causation, are addressed.
A Handbook on New Methods of Law Making in Private Law
Industry codes of conduct increasingly play a role in regulating B2B and B2C relationships and have, as such, become part of the contractual regulatory space. Nonetheless, the relationship between these codes and contract law as the traditional way of regulating private relationships still remains opaque. This chapter sheds some light on the relation between industry codes and contract law by addressing one of the questions that the regulatory role of these codes raises: is there a need for a framework for industry codes in contract law? Building on an analysis of the practice of industry codes, their interaction with the traditional foundations of contract law and a number of Dutch contract law cases involving industry codes, it is argued that contract law itself already includes leads to overcome the conceptual challenges that industry codes pose and to give further shape to the relationship between these codes and contract law. Keywords: industry codes of conduct, foundations of contract law, regulation, B2B and B2C relationships