The introduction provides a definition of peace and explains the normative base within the UN Charter. It gives an overview of trends within international law in light of a move towards a post-Western order and it sets out the scope of the book. It also identifies topics for further research.
Tom Baker and Christopher Walker
Contemporary policy work is deeply informed by the circulation of policy initiatives and models from other jurisdictions. Sometimes close and at other times distant, the influence of various ‘elsewheres’ (Allen and Cochrane, 2007) has become a routine feature of the policy process. Researchers from a range of academic disciplines have matched the increased traffic of policy knowledge with a growing body of knowledge that seeks to document and understand it. While political scientists have the longest history of engagement with travelling policy, anthropologists, geographers, sociologists, urban planners and other social scientists have joined the fray in recent years, creating a lively multidisciplinary research effort (Benson and Jordan, 2011; McCann and Ward, 2012). Yet, for the most part, this research effort has been disjointed. Despite having a common interest at their core (the movement of policy), there are largely separate conversations occurring, structured around concepts such as policy diffusion, policy learning, policy transfer and policy mobility. These conversations have ‘lived together apart’ for some time now, but appear to be converging toward a focus on diverse arenas, agents and actions implicated in the circulation of policy. We have also seen shifts from structure–agency binaries to notions of contextually-embedded agency, from neat, spatially and temporally delimited processes to messy, ongoing processes, and from an exclusive interest in the ‘why’ of travelling policy to a broader set of research questions regarding the ‘how’. In this book we use ‘policy circulation’ as an expedient umbrella term that signifies this emergent zone of common ground.
Katharina Gangl and Erich Kirchler
Economic psychology studies the fundamentals of perception and understanding of economic phenomena and economic thought and behaviour. It is an interdisciplinary field of research, partly overlapping with behavioural economics and strongly related to socio-economics. Scholars in the field laid the foundations more than a century ago, studying work and organizational behaviour, consumer decision-making and selected topics of public economics. Today, economic psychology deals with cognitive dynamics and decision-making in general, lay theories of economics, marketing and consumer behaviour, household financial decisions, labour markets, entrepreneurship, work and unemployment, shadow economy and tax behaviour, and wealth and well-being. Besides focusing on the cognitive drivers of decision-making, economic psychology also considers emotions and economic behaviour such as greed and envy, fear and anger, and positive feelings such as satisfaction and well-being. The volume editors have selected contributions to these topics and provide in the introduction a short overview of the history of economic psychology. The chapters are briefly introduced, emphasizing future directions of research and potential contributions to contemporary society challenges.
Kate Ogg and Susan Harris Rimmer
For feminist international law scholars, practitioners and advocates, the first two decades of the new Millennium have produced moments of elation and disenchantment. It has been the best and worst of times, in the truly Dickensian sense. With respect to international law victories for women, there have been successful campaigns to further entrench women’s rights in international and regional instruments. For example, in 2002 the Rome Statute came into force, which includes sexual violence in the definition of a crime against humanity. The Maputo Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa and the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence came into force in 2003 and 2014 respectively. Women’s achievements in the international sphere have been recognised and celebrated: since the turn of this century, seven women have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for work relating to peace-building, democracy and human rights. International institutions have demonstrated greater awareness of and commitment to women’s rights and empowerment. This is perhaps best demonstrated by the United Nation’s (UN) eight resolutions on women, peace and security adopted between 2000 and 2015. Another institutional highlight was the creation of UN Women in 2010 – an organisation dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women. In some quarters of the academic community, there has been optimism about feminist international legal scholarship’s growth and potential for influence. Yet alongside these and other successes, the first two decades of the new millennium have also provided reasons for despair.
Markus Krajewski and Rhea Tamara Hoffmann
Sarah Bauerle Danzman
The chapter provides a synthetic and critical review of political economy research related to bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and their effect on patterns of FDI flows. Firstly, the analysis of political institutions and FDI is grounded in a framework that emphasizes the sources and consequences of expropriation risk. The next section provides an overview of the broad but mostly inconclusive empirical literature that studies whether, how, and under what conditions BITs may influence investment flows. The fourth section overviews attempts to empirically answer the question of why governments agree to BITs and their terms at all. A fifth section then considers the unintended consequences of BITs, particularly with respect to the increased use of investor-state arbitration, and whether these costs place undue constraints on host governments. Finally, the author suggests three emerging areas of research that future work on BITs, FDI, and development outcomes should pursue.