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Maurice Adams and Corien Prins

The transformative impact of digitalization on society and the state of democracy can scarcely be overestimated. Effects are visible within the national state and across borders, as well as on knowledge production and political participation and social structures. In this introductory chapter, the variety of norms and ideals which are reflected in just as many different conceptions of democracy are singled out with regard to the respective chapters in this volume. Based on this, also some further thoughts on the topic are elaborated upon and a networked approach is advocated.

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Qi Tonghui

The essence of “the rule of law in China” is governance based on rational choice and contractual provisions, while is rational regulation is rooted in rules, although in this context of the rule of law, it still contains “status”. In the sense of “rational regulation”, the rule of law needs contracts, but it needs more “contractual status” in the sense of “virtue identity”, and we cannot replace status by contract only in accordance with the old path of “from status to contract”. Connecting with the mode of “absolute – true status” and “relative – false status”, which is built by contract and virtue, “contractual status” can provide distinction, birthright and duty for the rule of law. Keywords: rule of law; virtues; contract; status; contractual status

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Peter C. Carstensen

This chapter describes the harms that abuse of buyer power causes including both exploitation of producers and exclusion of competing buyers. It highlights the global dimensions of the problems that abuse of buyer power is causing.

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Edited by Mellani Day, Mary C. Boardman and Norris F. Krueger

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Robert P. Merges and Amy L. Landers

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Maurice Adams, Jaakko Husa and Marieke Oderkerk

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Janet E. Milne

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Qian Zhan

A consumer survey, as an instrument used to gather data on the beliefs and attitudes of consumers towards trademarks or products, is considered to have vital influence in trademark litigation. In recent years, courts have come to rely increasingly on the results of surveys conducted by one or both litigants in trademark lawsuits. The practical issue for trademark litigants is determining whether, when and how to develop survey evidence, given the cost, time, and other constraints. To shed light on this specific issue, we undertook a statistical analysis of trademark infringement cases in China. By examining 17 836 cases decided by China's courts over a 16-year period from 2001 through 2016, this article presents an empirical study assessing the statistical relationship between the presentation of survey evidence and case outcomes. The goal of our study is to help trademark litigants to determine the importance and value of presenting consumer surveys in trademark infringement case and make more informed decisions about their litigation strategies.

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Edited by Jürgen Basedow, Giesela Rühl, Franco Ferrari and Pedro de Miguel Asensio

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Roger E.A. Farmer

This paper explains the connection between ideas developed in my recent books and papers and those of economists who self-identify as post-Keynesians. My own work is both neoclassical and ‘old Keynesian.’ Much of my published work assumes that people have rational expectations and that ‘animal spirits’ should be modeled as a new fundamental. I adopt a general equilibrium framework to model the macroeconomy. But although I write from a neoclassical tradition the themes I explore in my published writing have much in common with heterodox economics. This paper explains the common elements between these seemingly disparate traditions. I make the case for unity between post-Keynesian and general equilibrium theory under the banner of post-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium theory.