This introductory chapter provides an overview of the economic crisis that hit European regions from 2007 and which took hold in 2008_09. It introduces the concept of regional economic resilience and outlines the key approach to measuring and assessing regional economic resilience which was developed for this research. This chapter concludes by providing an outline of the organisation and structure of the book, and a summary of its key themes.
Gillian Bristow and Adrian Healy
The Introduction presents the aims of the book. The first aim is to attempt to reconstruct from a historical perspective the theory of market power and the relationship it has with the theory of competition. The second is to show that the Italian marginalists have to be considered by historiography as a specific intellectual tradition. The third aim is to expand the existing awareness of how extraordinarily rich and innovative their theoretical contribution was. The fourth is to make an in-depth reconstruction of the historical and political context in which their theories were generated, also focusing on the way they have been applied. The Introduction also contains the plan of the book and the acknowledgements.
Chapter 1 introduces the subject-matter of the volume: EU Private International Law. It briefly explains the nature of private international law, and proceeds to consider the role of EU law in the harmonisation of the private international law rules of the Member States. It provides an overview of the EU legislative measures in this field, as well as considering the impact of the European Court's case-law on the right of establishment on choice of law in respect of corporate matters. It also considers the membership by the European Union of the Hague Conference on Private International Law.
Takatoshi Ito, Satoshi Koibuchi, Kiyotaka Sato and Junko Shimizu
Chapter 1 introduces the theme of this book, exchange rate risk for the exporters, by showing the sensitivity of corporate earnings and stock prices to exchange rate fluctuations. When the yen appreciates, corporate earnings and the Nikkei Index tend to fall. Faced with a long-run trend of yen appreciation, Japanese exporting firms have taken many countermeasures to lessen the exchange rate impact on their sales and profits. By invoicing in yen, they can avoid the exchange rate risk. However, importers suffer from exchange risk and have to absorb the change in import costs by changing their profit margins. Hence, which currency exports should be invoiced in depends on the nature of the products, the relationship between exporter and importer, and whether the exported goods are for the local market or for re-exporting after assembly. The chapter introduces these concepts and sets up the questions to be answered in later chapters.
Fred P. Gale
The introduction sets out the book’s key arguments. While human rights are axiomatic with freedom, an evaluation and critique of human rights interventions on issues of same-sex marriage, violence against women and the Islamic veil bans in Europe demonstrates how they have had disempowering and exclusionary effects and lays bare how human rights can operate as a project of global governance – a technique of containment and unfreedom, rather than meaningful freedom. The introduction sets out the central argument of this book, which is to illustrate how alternative nonliberal registers of freedom that exist beyond the liberal imaginary might offer possibilities of meaningful freedom to disempowered constituencies, in particular women and sexual and religious minorities. This argument is made partly through a reliance on a central metaphor: the fishbowl.
Chan S. Jung
This chapter provides conceptual explanations about goal and ambiguity separately. Then goal ambiguity in public management is explained in terms of definition, importance, and paradox. Goal ambiguity is defined as the extent to which a set of goals in a public program or an organization allows different interpretations in deciding work related to target, time limit, and external evaluation. Ambiguous goals can have negative effects throughout a program, an organization, and further on citizens and society and on public service performance. However, public managers must face dilemmatic situations between clear goals for (rational) managerial strategy and ambiguous goals for political need (e.g. interventions on the society versus broader political support), which is called the paradox of goal ambiguity. Then this chapter describes the plan of this book.