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Lorraine Eden

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Giliberto Capano, Michael Howlett and M Ramesh

Understanding how policy design can incentivize, constrain, and otherwise structure policy targets’ behavior to achieve desired results is vital but requires a clear understanding of the mechanisms that link policy tools to actual behavior. More importantly, it requires reasoning in terms of the processes and interactions that can be activated by policy tools to accomplish desired results. It is therefore imperative that policy designers – both those who study it and those who practice it – understand and specify clearly the linkages between the input (policy design) and the output, via the intended and unintended processes triggered by the design. However, many existing analytical efforts focus only on shedding light on what is needed for good policy design and ignore how good policy design works in terms of the types of processes that can be activated to achieve (or not) the desired results. As a result, we know little about how different solutions trigger and drive the achievement of intended outcomes. This chapter explores these issues and sets out the logic and findings of the other chapters in the book in advancing our understanding of policy mechanisms.

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Jean-Louis Briquet and Gilles Favarel-Garrigues

Few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the relationships between the political world and organised crime groups in France. On the one hand, research on organised crime in France focuses on the influence of foreign groups or on drug-dealing gangs in French suburbs; while on the other hand, political scandals usually reflect financial and white-collar offences, without any connection to the underworld. Drawing on rare academic studies, media investigations and institutional reports, this chapter shows the existence of ties between political actors and gangsters in the recent past. These ties may help to understand how political machines work at the local level and how political parties’ security teams becomeinvolved in criminal activities.

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Kenneth Boutin

Economic security requirements have played a crucial role in shaping the Sino-American economic relationship. Though American and Chinese authorities face broadly comparable problems, they are confronted by dissimilar policy challenges which they approach in distinct terms. Heightened attention to the economic requirements of national security, particularly in the United States, is generating policy requirements that threaten the basis for Sino-American industrial collaboration and integration. American concerns are exacerbated by increasing concern over China’s economic power and by the convergence of the economic trajectories of China and the United States. Heightened Chinese concern is driven less by the perception that the United States poses a greater economic security threat than in the past than growing concern over its structural role and its recent policy initiatives.

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Felia Allum, Stan Gilmour and Catherine Hemmings

A man in his thirties with black hair sits behind a desk. He is a former Camorrista who held an important role in his clan because he was one of the clan’s mediators with local politicians. He is unforgiving of politicians: ‘the ambition of all politicians is to “arrive”,without looking anyone in the eye . . . honestly or dishonestly, the important thing is to arrive’ (interview 1, 1997, p. 3). But then, he explains that politicians were often only manipulated by the Mafiosi in their quest for public contracts and funds: the tendering process for public contracts is organised by the local council, the decisions are taken by a board of councillors, the mayor and his deputy; all these people took orders from us. We knew from the start which contract we wanted to win and then, we would approach them through important people, influential people in the town. For example, builders or councillors, individuals who could approach certain people. We would manipulate the tendering process in our favour, indeed . . . we already knew who would win the contract, we knew who would do what, how much and when. (ibid.)

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Kenneth Boutin

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Alf Hornborg

This article sketches a transdisciplinary theoretical framework for understanding the so-called Anthropocene in terms of global inequalities. The concept of the Anthropocene has several profound implications that challenge central aspects of the modern worldview. Its relation to issues of global justice requires a cataclysmic reconceptualization of conventional notions of development, economic growth, and technological progress. The article refers to the asymmetric global flows of resources that were a prerequisite to the British Industrial Revolution to illustrate how technological systems and so-called energy transitions are not just politically innocent revelations of nature, but thoroughly societal strategies of appropriation. Contemporary observations regarding environmental justice, climate justice, and energy justice can be theorized in terms of the modern inclination to think of the economy as detached from nature, and of technology as detached from world society.

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Edited by Louis J. Kotzé

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Marcus Smith

The deployment of complex expert economic evidence is a common feature of competition litigation. However, fundamental differences in thinking between lawyers and economists may have a bearing on the content and presentation of that evidence. This article considers the respective roles of lawyers and economists in competition litigation in the High Court and the Competition Appeal Tribunal, and how those roles interlink in practice.