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Contracts against poverty

Justice, Institutions and Outcomes

Simon Birnbaum, Tommy Ferrarini, Kenneth Nelson and Joakim Palme

The capacity of the welfare state to reduce poverty is a classical goal of social policy. The empirical analyses in this chapter demonstrate how institutional structures shaping generational welfare contracts are mirrored in poverty statistics. Poverty tends to be lower in countries with balanced generational welfare contracts. Differences in poverty between age-related risk categories are also comparatively small among countries with balanced generation welfare contracts. The degree to which social insurance is balanced and provides for similar levels of protection for different age-related social risks thus appears crucial for the anti-poverty effects of modern welfare states. At higher poverty thresholds, age-related imbalances in social insurance exert a downward pressure on replacement levels, with higher poverty rates as a consequence. This is observed in the analyses of both total populations and in each age-related risk category.

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Conceptualizing common political order: an introduction

Institutions, Public Administration and Transnational Space

Jarle Trondal

The introductory chapter offers first a terminological overview of the key concepts of the book, followed by a discussion of the research agenda and the conceptual map that guides this volume. The chapter ends with an overview of the chapters of the volume. The key concepts of the book are (i) order suggests a relatively stable arrangement of institutions that are fairly formalized and institutionalized with respect to who does what, when and how; (ii) political suggests that these institutions are entitled and able to (contribute to) initiate, decide and implement public policy; and (iii) Common suggests that these political institutions fulfil at least three criteria: (a) they are fairly independent of pre-existing institutions, (b) they are relatively integrated and cohesive internally and not fragmented and loosely coupled, and (c) they are reasonably able to influence and challenge political processes within other political institutions – thus making the order into a common ‘one’.

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Preface

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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Foreword

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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The EU and the promotion of renewable energy: an analytical framework

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Helge Jörgens and Israel Solorio

Chapter 1 presents the analytical framework used throughout the book to study how renewable energy policies in the EU member states emerged and have changed throughout the past three decades. In order to study renewable energy policymaking in the European Union (EU) and its member states and to untangle the complex policy processes that surround it, the authors draw on the Europeanization framework as their principal analytical tool. Adopting a Europeanization perspective allows emphasis to be put not only on the domestic drivers of national policy change, but also on the (sometimes neglected) role of the EU in renewable energy sources promotion. It also directs the analytical focus to the interactive nature of EU policymaking, characterized by an interdependent mix of uploading, downloading and cross-loading of policies and programmes between the European and the national levels and across EU member states. In order to adequately account for the multiplicity of factors that drive policy change in the European multi-level polity, the authors distinguish between three types of Europeanization – bottom-up, top-down, and horizontal – all of which prove to be relevant in some countries or at some point in time. By explicitly adding a horizontal dimension, the analytical framework goes beyond traditional concepts of Europeanization as a two-way process where member state governments either shape European policy outcomes (bottom-up Europeanization) or adapt to them (top-down Europeanization). Keywords: bottom-up Europeanization, Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, policy diffusion, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization

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Gerald Nagtzaam

Chapter 1 scrutinizes the case study of the primary ‘ecoterrorist’ group protecting animals: the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). It sets out a brief history of animal welfare groups, the Hunt Saboteur protest group and the radical environmental group Band of Mercy that predated the ALF, as well as a biography of the group’s charismatic leader Ronnie Lee. The chapter describes the birth of the ALF both in the UK and the USA. It goes on to critically analyse both the ALF’s underlying philosophy and the development of a radical animal rights philosophy that underpinned ALF actions.
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Edited by Hakan G. Sicakkan

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Grith Skovgaard Ølykke and Albert Sanchez-Graells

This introductory chapter provides an essential background to the research project and the ‘law and political science’ methodology employed in each of the substantive chapters. It details the structure of the book and lays out the main research questions that the individual contributions and the general conclusions aim to answer.
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Doreen Allerkamp

This chapter serves as a primer on the EU’s political and legislative system, exploring the lines of conflict in the context of judicial politics most pertinent to the reform of public procurement regulation. All institutions partaking in the making of EU law bring distinctive incentives and constraints to that process. Its complexity and potential for cross-issue linkages have meant that the formal legislative procedure has been supplemented with informal elements, most notably the trilogue between Council, Parliament and Commission. Against this background, the CJEU plays a deeply entrenched part in the context of EU decision-making in terms of polity-construction, shaping EU law and fostering compliance with it. The chapter explores why, although certain factors may limit CJEU discretion, their cumulative impact is not unequivocal.