The chapter offers to the reader an insightful description of opposing, sometimes overlapping, nationalist projects in Europe. Beginning from the Enlightenment, the narrative focuses first on the main makers of nationalism (ideas of freedom, group homogeneity, collective culture and standardized language, centralization). It then describes some of the most relevant personalities that influenced the debate and the praxis of national and federal strategies around Europe. A special emphasis is given to the effects that Italian and German unifications had on revolutionary aspirations of nationalist movements. Finally the chapter presents the dynamics that led to the transformation of these ideals from political opposition to state ideology and imperialism. Within this framework, the Polish-Lithuanian and the Serbo-Croatian expectations for federal or ethno-national arrangements are analysed as key examples of multiple, opposing, national projects.
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This chapter describes the crisis that affected, in different ways, the Russian, the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian Empires at the dawn of the twentieth century, by focusing on the demands for autonomy that characterized the different national groups. Particular importance is ascribed to the multiple dynamics that affected the Baltic and Ukrainian regions within the Tsarist Empire, the role of the small independent states of the Balkans in imposing the Ottoman partition in South East Europe, as well as the strategic inspiration they drew from the Italian and German experience and, finally, the debates on national and institutional reforms within the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the assassination in Sarajevo.
Edited by Vladimir Popov and Piotr Dutkiewicz
Vladimir Popov and Jomo Kwame Sundaram
The chapter reviews catch-up or converging growth in parts of the Global South. By 1950, US per capita national income, adjusted for purchasing power, was nearly five times the world average. Since then, Western Europe and Japan have closed their per capita income gaps with the USA. East Asia, South Asia and some other developing countries have also started to close gaps with the West in recent decades. Thus, after two centuries of growing economic divergence, the world has witnessed an era of uneven convergence between parts of the South and the North. Alternative scenarios and some future implications are considered.
Joanna R. Quinn
The chapter traces the development of transitional justice (TJ), focusing on four of the most widely used instruments of TJ (criminal prosecutions, reparations, amnesty and truth-telling). It then outlines the development of TJ approaches and instruments around the world. Those same four commonly used instruments are utilized as a means of comparing experiences across continents. Finally, the chapter considers the ‘growing pains’ of the scholarship and practice of transitional justice. The questions raised have arisen because the field has matured to the extent that critical questions can and must be asked. Six of these are considered: deepening international engagement; the effect of contagion; simultaneity and the problems it brings; the call to address economic, social and cultural rights; the limits of what transitional justice can actually address; and the parameters of the transition in question. Origins and development of transitional justice; Europe; Latin America; Sub-Saharan Africa; Asia.
The Political Economy of Conflict and Cooperation
Jeffrey D. Wilson
What explains the emergence of international resource conflicts in the Asia-Pacific during the last decade? This chapter first introduces the empirical scope of this book – providing a broad overview of the global resource boom of the 2000s, the resource security challenges it has posed, and emerging patterns of inter-governmental conflict these have engendered. It then reviews existing theoretical approaches to international resource politics, outlining how these fail to move beyond the systemic level to probe the wider range of factors at both the international and domestic levels driving government’s policy behaviour. It argues that to adequately explain these dynamics, it is necessary to examine why resource interdependence has become a securitised policy domain, and the political-economic factors driving this shift.