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Laura Hyatt and Stuart Allen

Technology plays a significant role in doctoral leadership education providing a channel for teaching, learning, research and administrative practices. In this context, technology applied in doctoral leadership studies requires further exploration and serves to benefit students and society through innovative programs and learning designs. This chapter familiarizes the reader with the content and structure of the book. This is followed by an introduction to each of the chapters and their respective authors. The recent shifts in doctoral education and technology invite a conversation about pedagogical philosophies, processes and policies to consider learning environments and practices that will facilitate the future of postgraduate leadership education.

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Christophe Geiger, Craig Allen Nard and Xavier Seuba

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Steen Treumer and Mario Comba

The Directive was implemented before the deadline for implementation. The Danish implementation is one of the most interesting in the EU, as the legislator has consistently pushed the boundaries of EU public procurement law. The legislator reformulated the provisions of the Directive, adopted several questionable interpretations, considered numerous issues in further detail than the Directive and engaged in overimplementation. The majority of the questionable interpretations can be found in the preparatory works to the Procurement Act. Preparatory works are an important legal source in the Danish legal system, as it is an exception that Danish courts and complaints boards disregard preparatory works. Nevertheless, this has happened in the procurement context and will likely happen again due to the abovementioned characteristics of the Danish implementation. The regulation of competitive procedure with negotiation, contract changes and a requirement for prior publication of the method of evaluation is also of European interest.

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Christophe Geiger and Elena Izyumenko

The present chapter provides the first comprehensive overview of the European Court of Human Rights’ case law on IP for the period since the Court’s inception until today. It results from an analysis of more than 90 such cases, many of which have never been discussed before in the literature. This comprehensive overview shows the emergence in Europe of a human rights framework for the intellectual property system, which – in combination with the increasing use of fundamental rights by national courts to solve private-party disputes – is gaining in coherence and relevance when framing the conception and use of IP law.

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Matej Avbelj

The chapter addresses the phenomenon of human rights inflation in the European Union (EU). It argues that when it comes to human rights protection in the EU, less might be more. The inflationary trend of investing nominally into human rights poses a risk of being self-defeating and should be stopped. Instead, human rights have to be taken seriously in practice by the competent actors on the level closest to where human rights violations actually occur. This requires theoretical, doctrinal and institutional adjustments across the European constitutional space. Some of those are presented in the conclusion of the chapter, while the preceding sections trace how and why the EU embarked on its human rights inflationary route, as well as why exactly this inflation causes harm to the value of human rights protection.

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Alexander Styhre

Chapter 1 introduces governance as a legal issue, ultimately grounded in the philosophy of right, a branch of philosophy. Early legal theorists such as Hugo Grotius sketched versions of what is today called governance, and there is today a line of demarcation drawn between liberal economies of the Anglo-American type, and continental and Scandinavian embedded economies wherein the state is recognized as a major agent influencing the economic system. The chapter discusses the differences between John Locke’s liberal view of, e.g., ownership rights, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophy of right, developed 14 decades later. Whereas Locke emphasizes a “minimal theory” of ownership rights, serving as the foundation for liberalism, Hegel too recognizes ownership as a fundamental right but locates ownership rights within the realm of the state. Consequently, the intellectual roots of liberal economies and embedded economies share certain assumptions but also diverge regarding assumptions about the role of the state. The second half of the chapter examines the creation of the Berle–Means firm, a key legal vehicle in the liberal economy and in its governance.

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Khaled R. Bashir

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Edited by Ross Dowling and David Newsome

Geotourism is tourism based on geological features. It has been variously described as being a type of tourism that is either ‘geological’ or geographical’ in orientation. Whereas the former view was that geotourism was a ‘type’ of tourism in a similar vein to ecotourism, the latter view was wider and encompassed it thereby representing a new ‘approach’ to tourism. In this chapter geotourism is viewed both as a ‘type’ of tourism (with a geological focus) as well as an ‘approach’ to tourism, encompassing a wider geographic view. Thus, it is proposed that geotourism may be viewed through multiple lenses along a geological spectrum which has geotourism as a ‘type’ of tourism at one end, and as an ‘approach’ at the other. Thus, the definition of geotourism has expanded to encompass a number of attributes – geology, tourism, geosites, visits and interpretation. The ‘geo’ or geology part of geotourism includes geological features or attributes which are considered worthy of tourist interest. The ‘tourism’ part refers to the conversion of geological features or attributes into tourism resources as ‘geo’ attractions or tours often at designated ‘geosites’. These can occur in either natural or modified settings such as in rural or urban areas and visits to geological attractions (geo-attractions) could be either independent or on guided tours. The interpretation of geo-attractions occurs through an approach comprising elements of both geology and tourism. The geological elements comprise ‘form’, ‘process’ and ‘time’. These describe the geological tourist attractions of landscape, landform or feature (that is, its form), how it got there or was made (process), and when, or during what period of geological time, it was formed (time).

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Sybe de Vries

This chapter focuses on two challenges and possible threats to the exercise of European Union (EU) citizens’ economic rights. The first challenge relates to the question of how the EU Single Market must be defined and envisaged, particularly in relation to the social market economy, which is a key task according to Article 3 TEU (Treaty on European Union). In the face of growing inequality in Europe and contestation of the European integration process, an immature ‘social market’ at EU level seems increasingly problematic, also for the exercise of citizens’ economic rights.A second set of (related) challenges concerns the potential impact of a number of developments, including Brexit, the migration and the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) crisis, on the presumed unity of the internal market. The Commission’s White Paper on the Future of Europe includes ‘differentiated integration’ as one of the scenarios for the future development of the European Union. Would it, for instance, be imaginable that more variation exists between Member States with respect to their commitment to the four freedoms? What does that mean for the economic rights of citizens?