Edited by Rosalind Dixon and Tom Ginsburg
Edited by Samo Bardutzky and Elaine Fahey
Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States
Helge Jörgens and Israel Solorio
Chapter 1 presents the analytical framework used throughout the book to study how renewable energy policies in the EU member states emerged and have changed throughout the past three decades. In order to study renewable energy policymaking in the European Union (EU) and its member states and to untangle the complex policy processes that surround it, the authors draw on the Europeanization framework as their principal analytical tool. Adopting a Europeanization perspective allows emphasis to be put not only on the domestic drivers of national policy change, but also on the (sometimes neglected) role of the EU in renewable energy sources promotion. It also directs the analytical focus to the interactive nature of EU policymaking, characterized by an interdependent mix of uploading, downloading and cross-loading of policies and programmes between the European and the national levels and across EU member states. In order to adequately account for the multiplicity of factors that drive policy change in the European multi-level polity, the authors distinguish between three types of Europeanization – bottom-up, top-down, and horizontal – all of which prove to be relevant in some countries or at some point in time. By explicitly adding a horizontal dimension, the analytical framework goes beyond traditional concepts of Europeanization as a two-way process where member state governments either shape European policy outcomes (bottom-up Europeanization) or adapt to them (top-down Europeanization). Keywords: bottom-up Europeanization, Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, policy diffusion, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization
Joanna R. Quinn
The chapter traces the development of transitional justice (TJ), focusing on four of the most widely used instruments of TJ (criminal prosecutions, reparations, amnesty and truth-telling). It then outlines the development of TJ approaches and instruments around the world. Those same four commonly used instruments are utilized as a means of comparing experiences across continents. Finally, the chapter considers the ‘growing pains’ of the scholarship and practice of transitional justice. The questions raised have arisen because the field has matured to the extent that critical questions can and must be asked. Six of these are considered: deepening international engagement; the effect of contagion; simultaneity and the problems it brings; the call to address economic, social and cultural rights; the limits of what transitional justice can actually address; and the parameters of the transition in question. Origins and development of transitional justice; Europe; Latin America; Sub-Saharan Africa; Asia.
The Role of the European Ombudsman
Herwig C.H. Hofmann
This chapter undertakes an assessment of the legal framework governing the mandate and capabilities as well as independence of the European Ombudsman (hereafter, the ‘Ombudsman’). To do so, the chapter takes a detailed look at, inter alia, EU ‘constitutional’ law, the Ombudsman’s existing procedures, the concept of ‘maladministration’ as expressed in the Ombudsman’s mandate, and the consequences of an Ombudsman finding of maladministration. On this basis the chapter discusses future possibilities for developing ombuds review in the European Union (EU) as well as Ombudsman O’Reilly’s stated ambition to increase the visibility of the Ombudsman and the impact of ombuds review in the context of more high-profile, and often ‘political’, investigations.
The Rest Beyond the West
Vladimir Popov and Jomo Kwame Sundaram
The chapter reviews catch-up or converging growth in parts of the Global South. By 1950, US per capita national income, adjusted for purchasing power, was nearly five times the world average. Since then, Western Europe and Japan have closed their per capita income gaps with the USA. East Asia, South Asia and some other developing countries have also started to close gaps with the West in recent decades. Thus, after two centuries of growing economic divergence, the world has witnessed an era of uneven convergence between parts of the South and the North. Alternative scenarios and some future implications are considered.