An introduction and overview of how claims relating to the mis-selling of financial products have evolved. A consideration of the impact of mis-selling and the importance of financial services regulation in framing or defending a mis-selling claim. An analysis of the impact of Brexit and other potential future developments in this area.
Albert N. Link and John T. Scott
IHL protects the life and dignity of persons affected by armed conflicts, but only to the extent States consider their respect to be compatible with the legitimate aim of an armed conflict to weaken the military potential of the enemy. The precise protection offered by IHL depends on the classification of the conflict as international or non-international, the classification of the affected person as a civilian or combatant and many other legal categorizations.
This chapter outlines the key arguments in the book. Cities and Regions in Crisis suggests that economic development policy failure has been continually moved around. Contradictions necessitate displacement and transformation, but the crisis management strategies of the state themselves are always subject to new forms of crisis tendency, which points to the always unstable nature of economic governance and economic development. It suggests that economic development is heterogeneous, mutable, and involves variegated responses, producing unstable uneven geographical outcomes. A political economy framework for grappling with this is desperately needed and the chapter outlines: firstly, a consideration of the relationship between geography, public policy, the state, and space; secondly, a long-run analysis of the historical specificities, trends, and counter-trends of state intervention within capitalism; and thirdly, the interconnecting of analyses of economic development with changes in social policy, given the value-relations aspects of capitalism within which state intervention occurs.
Zsuzsa A. Ferenczy
This chapter sets the scene for the assessment of Europe’s normative power effectiveness and its limitations in shaping China’s development along international norms. It presents the structure, methodology, theory and outline of the book and introduces the core concepts and context. Europe and China are central to addressing key international challenges. As a normative power, Europe has committed to socializing China with international norms. China, as an emerging actor seeking international recognition has expanded its own international ambitions, navigating between the embrace and dismissal of international norms. In this process, their influence has been mutual. Since the 2008 financial turmoil, followed by a political crisis, Europe’s standing and influence regarding China have however suffered. With its fragmented governance and divided Europe and a confident China, the book investigates the dynamics of European foreign policy. It assesses Europe’s international capacity, the extent to which it can actually shape China’s development.
Dieter K. Müller
The Introduction provides a short overview of the role of future projections such as research agendas for future scientific endeavours. This is done in relation to the restructuring of geography departments and the outsourcing of tourism geographies to other institutional contexts. Furthermore the chapter provides a summarizing overview of the chapters included in the book.
Jonathan Wilkenfeld, Kyle Beardsley and David Quinn
This Research Handbook brings together a number of perspectives on the practice of mediation in the international system. A diversity of origins and a wide array of actors typify conflicts and crises today. The widespread availability of lethal weapons at the disposal of parties to conflict have made civilian populations tragically vulnerable as they are often caught in the crossfire. These circumstances require a systematic approach to crisis management whereby we can attempt to match the conditions of conflict with appropriate conflict management mechanisms as we seek more effective control of conflict. Mediation, the subject of this Research Handbook, is but one of a number of tools available for addressing conflict and crisis – others include arbitration, adjudication, and intervention in the form of peacemaking, peacebuilding, and peacekeeping. We focus on mediation because we believe that when applied to the confluence of conditions that typify today’s conflict and crisis arena, mediation – either alone or in combination with other intervention mechanisms – can make a crucial difference in whether or not the international community will be successful in limiting conflict and crisis. Let us begin first by clarifying our thoughts on crisis. We feel the best way to think about conflict/crisis is as a continuum. At some point in an ongoing conflict, perhaps over land or resources, control of government, borders between states, and so on, that conflict, whether interstate or intrastate, reaches crisis proportions – widespread protests, threatening troop movements, violations of cease fires, or actual violence. That is, there has been a change in the disruptive interactions between the parties, resulting either in hostilities or in a higher than normal likelihood of violent hostilities. At that point, the conflict has escalated to crisis. It need not entail violence, but the probability that violence will ensue has increased.
This chapter provides an introduction to the key themes and scope of the book. In particular, it highlights the book’s thematic emphasis on the following dimensions of Chinese behavior in the international political economy: (1) the processes underlying China’s rising global economic influence; (2) China’s behavior and role in global economic governance; (3) the interests and motivations underlying China’s international economic initiatives; and (4) the influence of both domestic and international politics on China’s global economic footprint
Christos Anagnostopoulos and Mathieu Winand
Research on governance is an increasingly central topic within the sport management scholarly community. This chapter introduces the content of the Handbook and provides an overview of research on sport governance. The aim of this Research Handbook (the first of its kind) is to present a collection of original contributions that advance our knowledge on various issues on sport governance and, in so doing, to offer a vital reference point for advancing research on this matter.