Edited by Horatia Muir Watt, Lucia Bíziková, Agatha Brandão de Oliveira and Diego P. Fernandez Arroyo
Bus rapid transit (BRT)has grown in popularity since the 1970s. It is widely recognized as a key mode of public transit shaping urban spaces in cities across the globe. This chapter provides an introductory context to BRT, its role and effects in urban spaces of which it is a part and considers how BRT has been valued in the broader framework of transport valuation. In particular, different forms of BRT, including buses with a higher level of service, are introduced and conceptualized along a spectrum between BRT lite and BRT full, and between conventional buses and light rail transit. BRT is further conceptualized as an integrative part of urban space, inseparable from the material and immaterial aspects of the spaces in which it develops. It is also argued that BRT ought to be valued beyond the traditional triad of economic, social and environmental effects.
What is comparative legal history? This chapter argues that to understand this new field of legal-historical studies, we need first to clarify how legal historiography has changed over time. This is done according to two main ideas. First, the writing of legal history is deeply intertwined with an image of law that tells us what law is, how it is created and by whom. This is, in fact, the premise for writing legal history, as it determines the object of investigation. Second, the decades between 1930 and 1960 saw a profound turn in European legal science. Some legal scholars challenged the legacy received from the 19th century and launched an attack on the ‘formalism’ at the heart of its intellectual framework. Those path-breaking insights gave life to a wave of works self-styled as comparative legal history published in the period 1930–60. At their heart were some of the challenging ideas that have continued to fuel original legal-historical research in the last few decades (e.g. to place law in context, to think outside the doctrinal box, the dislike of abstract theorising) and which today are shared as an obvious truth. They are the fruit of the antiformalist turn of the period between1930 and 1960.
This chapter begins the issue of definition of the field and its relationship to leisure in general. It is argued that cultural economics often suffers from the paradox of providing forms of analysis that are not very ‘cultural’. the chapter provides a review of the idea of cultural economics in the history of thought from Adam Smith to World War II with general discussion of pertinent aspects of neoclassical welfare economics. Work by economists in the Association of Cultural Economics International (ACEI) and in the Journal of Cultural Economics are highlighted in terms of the key developments such as Baumol’s ‘cost disease’. Attention is drawn to the increasingly empirical focus of work by these economists. A critical review of the field by David Throsby, in 1994, is used as a benchmark to identify possible progress in the research area. It is claimed that several of the items identified by him are still lacking in significant progress.
Thomas R. Michl and Kayla M. Oliver
Hysteresis, path dependence, and multiple equilibria are characteristic features of post-Keynesian economics. This paper constructs an otherwise conventional three-equation model that includes a hysteresis-generating mechanism and an invariant output target. We use it to explore the implications for monetary policy of an output-targeting policy framework that seeks to reverse the damage caused by hysteresis. We restrict ourselves to negative aggregate demand shocks and positive inflation shocks that in most instances require a disinflationary response from the central bank. One important finding is that as long as inflation expectations are to some degree anchored, the central bank can achieve its output target after an aggregate demand shock by overshooting its inflation target temporarily and running a ‘high-pressure labor market.’ If expectations are unanchored, an aggregate demand shock will not have long-run hysteresis effects because the central bank is obliged to reflate aggressively, replacing on a cumulative basis all the demand that was lost through the shock. However, with unanchored expectations a pure inflation shock will create hysteresis effects since the central bank will need to disinflate and it does not have the option of running a high-pressure labor market. Anchoring gives the central bank this option, making inflation shocks manageable.
Anna Masutti and Filippo Tomasello
Where law is lawful, decision-makers must comply with the law. If administrative justice is to be achieved in the global space, administrative decision-makers must be committed to ‘legality’, meaning that their decisions are consistent with the existing body of law. A comparative analysis of prevailing functional understandings of administrative justice reveals that it contains a requirement that administrative decisions be made ‘according to law’. Global administrative justice requires cohesiveness, and cohesiveness implies stability, or an anchor to which standards can be tethered. If a requirement for decisions to be made according to law is incorporated into a model of global administrative justice, that anchor becomes the legal framework under which administrative decisions are made. The existing law in the global space, which is defined as international law, domestic law and institutional law, intersects with the United Nations to create legal obligations for its administrative decision-making.