Personalized pricing can have negative or positive effects for consumers. Concerns are more likely to arise in circumstances where there is limited competition, or where consumers are unaware of, do not understand, and/or cannot avoid personalization. In some circumstances, personalization may be unfair or otherwise illegal under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 or other legislation. It may also distort competition and give rise to consumer harm and thereby infringe UK or EU competition law, or cause markets to not work effectively and therefore justify a market study or investigation by the Competition and Markets Authority (‘CMA’) under the Enterprise Act 2002. This article considers how the CMA will tackle personalized pricing that may distort competition in digital markets.
Edited by Diane Nijs
Mary Gilmartin and Anna-Kaisa Kuusisto-Arponen
In this chapter the authors discuss critical geographies of migration through a focus on two key sites: the border and the body. They outline critical approaches to the study of borders, which include discussions of specific borders (European Union, USA–Mexico, detention sites). They also detail the effects of the hierarchization of migrant bodies, and elaborate on this through a discussion of migrant experiences at work. The authors argue for the importance of bringing together geopolitical and biopolitical approaches to the critical geographies of migration, in a way that emphasizes embodied migrant practices. The chapter concludes by highlighting some ways in which approaches to the critical geographies of migration could be further developed.
Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas
This chapter provides an overview of the entire book and establishes the context of the work and research carried out. It discusses the importance of the subject in hand from an economic, social and political perspective. It covers examples of cybersecurity attacks of the modern age and highlights the devastating impact of those attacks. The chapter briefly covers the two main theories used in analyzing the content of cybersecurity policies and strategies: the resource-based theory and deterrence theory. In addition, the chapter discusses the state of the legal system in the developing world as far as the protection of cyber space is concerned. Further, this chapter briefly discusses the state of cybersecurity policies and strategies in developing and emerging economies and highlights the importance of cooperation among developing and developed countries and NGOs for the purpose of protecting cyber space. The chapter concludes with a roadmap of the research undertaken and a summary of the chapters that follow.
Laura Alexandra Helbling, Stefan Sacchi and Christian Imdorf
This chapter investigates the extent to which graduating in a bad economy scars the careers of youth cohorts in terms of increased future unemployment and over-representation in fixed-term and involuntary part-time work. Using data from the European Union’s Labour Force Survey, we explore these dynamics of scarring from a cross-country comparative perspective, focusing on the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Finland. These countries make for interesting cases because they differ remarkably on institutional and economic dimensions. Overall, we find that bad luck in the timing of labour market entry can scar future careers, even over the long run. Manifold factors might explain the observed variation in scarring effects across different institutional settings. A sound conceptualization of the institutional framing of long-term scarring effects requires a well-established micro theory of these effects’ behavioural foundations, regarding both employers and jobseekers or workers.
Competition is a more complicated concept than it appears to be. This chapter distinguishes competition from related concepts (such as struggle or contest). It explores different types of competition, such as chivalrous and socialist competition, and gives room to critics of capitalism.
Jacqueline O’Reilly, Bjørn Hvinden, Mi Ah Schoyen and Christer Hyggen
This chapter summarizes the main results presented in the volume. It discusses the range of factors influencing young people’s well-being, their risk of scarring from prolonged job insecurity, their active agency in negotiating these situations in times of austerity and, finally, their prospects for making stable transitions to adulthood. Overall, the analyses show that the potential impact of employment services and active labour market policies in moderating the adverse effects of youth unemployment vary across national contexts, labour market situations and sectors. Apart from local-level public services, social networks and family support are important factors in converting resources and latent opportunities into desired outcomes, but again cross-national variations are notable. Finally, the chapter draws together the book’s main answers to the question as to how policymakers at different territorial levels can improve policies to integrate young people into the labour market.