Liberalization, Integration, and Asymmetric State Power
This chapter introduces the notion that financial liberalization in Europe may have had problematic consequences, such as increasing financial instability, paving the way for Europe’s initial experience of the global financial crisis, and for adding to the costs of European recovery since 2008. It also introduces the roles that asymmetrical power dynamics may have played in promoting broad-scale financial liberalization in Europe, as well as unequally distributing the costs and gains associated with the changed scale of financial activity within the EMU. Finally, it previews the findings of two case study chapters, examining the effects of financial liberalization in the core European economy of Germany, and two peripheral European economies, Iceland and Ireland.
Context, Processes and People
Thomas Garavan, Alma McCarthy and Ronan Carbery
This chapter charts the landscape of international human resource development (IHRD) and engages with four key strands of IHRD scholarship that point to its possible boundaries. The chapter maps out a number of contextual drivers that are shaping IHRD as both an academic field of research and a set of organisational practices. The chapter proposes an overarching framework to conceptualise the terrain of IHRD. The chapter summarises the focus of the Handbook and summarises the individual chapters and how they are organised. Finally, the chapter proposes a number of priority research areas that will help to give the construct legitimacy as a field of research. The chapter engages in these debates while also acknowledging the emergent, dynamic and constantly evolving nature of the IHRD field.
Edited by Frank Hoy, Rozenn Perrigot and Andrew Terry
Fostering Environmental Protection
The history of BTAs has been largely unexplored by the literature. Nevertheless, the historical analysis of traditional BTAs may contribute to a better understanding of BTAs’ main purpose and WTO legal limits to their adoption. This chapter discusses the historical development of BTAs against the background of the removal of tariffs, from Ricardo’s economic theory on free trade to more recent views expressed at the political level since the mid-20th century. This chapter first analyses BTAs’ economic foundations (Section 1). Second, the political history of BTAs is discussed (Section 2). Finally, this chapter offers an overview of BTAs’ main theoretical foundations (Section 3). Keywords: economic & political history; theoretical foundation; Ricardo; theory of comparative advantage; theory of absolute advantage