Edited by Ann Numhauser-Henning
Phoebe Koundouri, Wenting Chen, Osiel González Dávila, Amerissa Giannouli, José Hernández Brito, Erasmia Kotoroni, Evdokia Mailli, Katja Mintenbeck, Chrysoula Papagianni and Ioannis Souliotis
Geert Van Calster and Leonie Reins
This chapter discusses the history and developmental context of European environmental law. It establishes the sources thereof, as well as the division of competences in European law in general and in the area of environmental law specifically. Lastly, it discusses the objectives of European environmental law, namely sustainable development, a high degree of environmental protection, the quality of the environment, protecting human health and promoting measures at the international level.
Flemming Sørensen and Francesco Lapenta
This introductory chapter of the service innovation research methods book introduces the aim and purpose of the book. It describes the theoretical framework that underpins the book and its individual chapters. The framework includes considerations about a) the theoretical and methodological dimensions of service innovation, b) contemporary trends in service innovation and research, and c) society’s expectations of service innovation research. Additionally, the chapter introduces the content of the individual chapters and thus provides an overview of the contents of the book.
Edited by Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Lisa E. Svensson and Anil Markandya
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter reviews a wide range of literature on the “sandwich generation.” Women and men in the sandwich generation are caregivers to their young and older children as well as to one or both parents while managing their own household and work responsibilities. Sandwiched individuals report high levels of stress – physical, emotional and financial. Most sandwiched people are in their 50s and 60s. The sandwich generation is projected to grow dramatically over the next 30 years. Employed caregivers need to make work-related adjustments to undertake care. One response is to work fewer hours. Women undertake more caregiving than do men. The sandwich generation is a worldwide phenomenon with wide country differences in the levels and types of support available to caregivers. The caregiving relationship is complex, involving gender of caregiver, parents and parents-in-law, ethnic differences, resident versus non-resident caregivers, and changes in the relationship over time, sometimes involving Alzheimer’s and dementia. But there are benefits to caregivers as well, including improved relationships, using skills and developing new skills, and generously giving to another. Organizations need to address increases in caregiving among their employees and develop policies and initiatives that support these valued employees. Examples of such initiatives are described. There is also a need at the country level to integrate employees, communities, employers, businesses and levels of government to deal with this increasing trend. Key words: definition of sandwich generation, strains and benefits of caregiving, organizational challenges, supportive organization and government interventions.