Kjetil Klette Bøhler, Veneta Krasteva, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janikke Solstad Vedeler, Rumiana Stoilova and Ida Tolgensbakk
This chapter presents a cross-national qualitative comparison, examining the extent to which the narratives of young Europeans experiencing unemployment and job insecurity have commonalities across nation states. Our starting point is interviews with men and women from three birth cohorts (1950–55, 1970–75 and 1990–95) in seven European countries. Using the concept of big-N narratives, we interpret common themes found in our data. We focus on subjective consequences, using the capability approach to understand how individual actors perceive their challenges, what they are capable of doing and what might help them. The chapter expands on previous work by proposing seven conversion factors as lenses for our analysis: institutional, social, economic, familial, cultural, political and personal. Reading the data through these lenses, four overarching narratives of unemployment emerge: the Stumbler narrative, the Stigmatized narrative, the Great Crisis narrative and the Messy Life narrative.
Gender has long been researched as one of the key factors in advertising. However, while a lot has been written about the portrayal of gender in advertising less is known about the effectiveness of different, e.g. traditional vs non-traditional, gender portrayals and their effects on the audiences. Despite some changes over time, traditional gender roles still seem to be preferred by advertisers and marketers. Some argue such an approach increasingly alienates consumers as it is not in keeping with the changing society. This chapter overviews the current research on the content, effectiveness and effects of gendered advertising from a consumer psychology perspective rooted in a positivist social psychological approach. In doing so it challenges the common advertising practices and argues that counter-stereotypical advertising appeals may be more effective even in a global consumer context.
In recent years, the South China Sea appears to be on a ‘slow boil.’ Tensions simmer and occasionally bubble up, creating turbulence before the waters return to a more gentle bubble. What strategy is being pursued by the most powerful party to the South China Sea dispute? What is the best way forward for this chronic flashpoint? This chapter offers an overview of the power play in the South China Sea and sketches out an overall approach to dispute management in the region.
The chapter provides an analysis of the effects on the labour market of absolute and relative changes in the size of the youth population in the context of the recent economic and financial crisis. Whereas most studies neglect the demographic effect in short-run analyses of the labour market, this contribution argues that neglecting demographic shifts has important consequences both practically and methodologically. It is argued that because of decreasing levels of substitutability of young and older workers, it is necessary to focus on the absolute number of employed young people rather than on employment rates. The message of this chapter is that if one observes a short-term improvement on the basis of traditional labour market indicators, it is likely that this improvement will distort policymakers’ interpretations and decisions.
Margherita Bussi, Bjørn Hvinden and Mi Ah Schoyen
Key aims of the European Social Fund have been economic redistribution and social cohesion within the EU. However, social policy research has taken little interest in the question of how resources channelled through the ESF affect employment and social welfare. Addressing this gap, the chapter retraces youth as a target population of the ESF over time and shows how ESF support for young people has evolved in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom since 2007. Overall, the result is an ambiguous picture regarding the ESF’s significance vis-à-vis young people at risk of long-term unemployment or precarity in the 2007–13 funding period. In the ongoing funding period (2014_20) efforts to tackle young people’s difficulties in the labour market have been stepped up. While the topic is clearly in need of further research, such efforts are frustrated by a lack of high-quality, comparative, quantitative data.
Irene Dingeldey, Lisa Steinberg and Marie-Luise Assmann
Comparing Germany, Spain and Greece, the article outlines how the implementation of the European Youth Guarantee was rather path dependent, in the sense that it largely reproduced and strengthened a pre-existing approach of domestic youth unemployment policies. Nevertheless, by adopting a broader perspective on the impact of the YG, we can observe different types of shifts in governance processes (procedural change) and in agendas (substantive change). These changes are supported by mechanisms of vertical and horizontal coordination linked to the implementation of the YG. Overall, the changes in Southern European countries are greater than in Germany. European financial support and a more evident institutional misfit with respect to settings for providing smooth school-to-work transition in Southern Europe than in Germany may have contributed to this difference.
Dimitris Parsanoglou, Aggeliki Yfanti, Christer Hyggen and Lulu P. Shi
This chapter investigates the potential negative signalling effects of unemployment and participation in active labour market measures in Greece and Norway. A vignette experiment directed at recruiters and employers is applied. Our findings show that negative signalling effects of unemployment are more pronounced in countries where the macroeconomic context is positive and unemployment rates – including the youth unemployment rate – are low. What is also significant is that participation in active labour market policies is not perceived very positively in these cases. Our study shows that participating in ALMPs is perceived in a more positive way in a context of high unemployment, such as in Greece, whereas it might have a negative effect in a context where labour demand is high, such as in Norway. Our findings call for rethinking and, most importantly, contextualizing active labour market policies, taking into account national and sectorial specificities.
Bjørn Hvinden, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Tomáš Sirovátka, Mi Ah Schoyen and Christer Hyggen
The chapter asks how policies to integrate young people into the labour market can be improved. The key message is that there is a need for a broad mix of national policies, including active labour market policies, education policies, employment protection legislation and unemployment income protection. These policies have to be coordinated – at each territorial level as well as between levels. The chapter summarizes the achievements and shortcomings of European countries in the light of five contrasting policy mixes or ‘employment regimes’ (inclusive, employment-centred, liberal, sub-protective and transitional/post-socialist). Finally, the chapter outlines a number of specific policy recommendations grouped under the headings ‘Improving governance’ and ‘Improving the substance and quality of measures’ and concludes with a list of eight key policy recommendations linked to main findings from the project.