John A.P. Chandler
Antoni Verger, Adrián Zancajo and Clara Fontdevila
International actors are increasingly active in promoting education reforms worldwide, but especially in contexts of vulnerability. As in a zero-sum game, the presence of international actors is expected to compensate for the budgetary and administrative restrictions that governments face in vulnerable countries. Nonetheless, international actors do not only operate in contexts of fragility for humanitarian reasons, or to cover governmental needs. For many international actors, contexts of vulnerability are privileged spaces to promote their preferred policy reform approaches, and to experiment with “innovative” solutions that would be difficult to implement in more stable political contexts. This chapter focuses on the way international actors promote different pro-private education solutions in vulnerable contexts. Specifically, we analyze two cases in which international actors have been especially prominent in advancing an education privatization agenda: the expansion of low-fee private schools in low-income countries and the promotion of pro-private sector solutions in contexts of emergency.
Institutional theory provided scholars from various backgrounds with powerful and effective theoretical tools to probe into the post-socialist transition economies over the last two decades. Researchers, particularly in the fields of international business, and small business and entrepreneurship, benefited significantly by drawing on neo-institutional perspectives to explore and explain the various effects of unstable institutional settings and embedded institutional factors on firm behaviour in these environments. However, it is highlighted here that the neo-institutionalist approach, and in particular the new institutional economics lens, tends to represent the most dominant approach utilized by scholars interested in post-socialist economies. While this perspective remains powerful and effective, this chapter proposes that research in this area can potentially benefit in important ways from expanding the boundaries of institutional analysis by integrating insights from two emerging but hitherto underexploited institutional perspectives, namely the varieties of transition approach, which is an alternative to the mainstream comparative capitalism, and a more actor-centred perspective on institutional change. It can be argued that the transition process in post-socialist states has not followed the once-anticipated linear progression towards Western models of capitalism. Despite the popularity of institutional approaches in studying transition economies, research on the transitional periphery within the broader realm of business studies has remained largely silent in acknowledging the divergent transition paths and the possible implications of this institutional divergence for firm behaviour. Furthermore, limited attention has been paid to the role of actors as agents of institutional change, including the mechanisms they deploy to achieve such change. Thus, integrating insights from comparative capitalism and theory of institutional change can enrich the current thinking on institutions and the firm in the transitional periphery by shedding new light on these important issues.
Henri de Waele and Marie-Pierre Granger
This introductory chapter first sketches the overall context of the volume, positioning the topic and the chosen angle within the ongoing scholarly debate on EU citizenship. It clarifies the structure of the book, as well as the lead questions and themes addressed in the various chapters, thereby identifying the underlying philosophy of and interconnections between the two main parts. Lastly, it provides the reader with a concise series of previews, indicating the concrete ‘marching order’ in the individual contributions, while already highlighting some of the authors’ findings and conclusions.
Robert D. Hisrich and Veland Ramadani
This chapter discusses the importance of entrepreneurial marketing for a new or growing company. In this chapter, the concepts of entrepreneurship and marketing are explained, followed by a discussion of their interface. Then the concept of entrepreneurial marketing and the differences and similarities of traditional and entrepreneurial marketing are presented. The chapter concludes with an introduction to the 4Ps (product, price, place [distribution], and promotion); 4Cs (consumer needs, consumer cost, convenience, and communication); 4Vs (validity, value, venue, and vogue); 4As (acceptability, affordability, accessibility, and awareness); and 4Os (objects, objectives, organization, and operations) of the marketing mix.
In Chapter 1 I argue for the claim that the (Darwinian) evolutionary theory leads to the view of human nature which I call ‘doubly ambivalent’. The first ambivalence of human nature is that it comprises immoral, neutral and moral tendencies. The second ambivalence is that our natural (shaped by natural selection) moral tendencies are far from being genuinely moral. They embrace, in broad outline, the tendency to feel empathy, kin altruism, tribalism and reciprocal altruism. I introduce the concepts of evolutionary ethics, by which I mean a set of moral rules expressive of (or correlated with) moral tendencies shaped by natural selection, and genuine ethics – a set of moral rules which impose much stronger requirements of impartiality than evolutionary ethics. Accordingly, I defend the claim that biological evolution endowed us with moral tendencies, but there is a discontinuity between these tendencies and genuine ethics. I also introduce a distinction between primary and secondary evil. By ‘primary evil’ I understand evil which flows from our immoral tendencies, and by ‘secondary evil’ evil actions which flow from our neutral or moral tendencies. Secondary evil can be viewed as an undesirable (from the perspective of genuine ethics) consequence of our evolutionarily shaped neutral and moral tendencies; the notion of secondary evil therefore makes sense only on the assumption that there is some more ‘pure’ type of ethics than the one ‘built into’ our biological nature.
This book begins by highlighting why a diverse group of professionals need skills to spot risk under the FCPA and related laws. The short answer is because risk is omnipresent for business organizations competing in the global marketplace. While all seem to acknowledge this, in the minds of some, compliance should be easy: “just don’t bribe.” However, this simplistic narrative is a fallacy because the overwhelming majority of business organizations subject to the FCPA and related laws compete in the global marketplace with a commitment to compliance, yet subject to unrealistic legal standards and/or difficult and complex business conditions that often serve as the root cause of scrutiny and enforcement. An examination of these root causes is not meant to excuse the conduct giving rise to an enforcement action, but rather to understand how and why the conduct occurred in the first place. Understanding the root causes of scrutiny and enforcement also serves an important compliance objective in that a key component of best practices is conducting a risk assessment (i.e. understanding unique points of contact with “foreign officials”) and prioritizing compliance to specific risks. This chapter next highlights that a diverse group of professionals also need skills to spot risk because scrutiny and enforcement can result in wide-ranging, negative financial consequences for business organizations. Obviously one reason to comply with the FCPA and related laws is because non-compliance can expose an organization to an actual enforcement action brought by law enforcement. However, settlement amounts in an actual enforcement action are often only a relatively minor component of the overall financial consequences that can result from scrutiny and enforcement. Discussion of these many other “ripples” is intended to shift the compliance conversation away from a purely legal issue to its more proper designation as a general business issue that needs to be on the radar screen of many professionals who can assist in risk management and who should view the importance of compliance more holistically and not merely through the narrow lens of actual enforcement actions.
“Death by a Thousand Cuts” surveys the controversial, market-driven, education reform movement in the United States: where it came from, how it operates, and what it has delivered so far. The historically strong commitment of Americans to public education has been under assault since the resurgence of laissez-faire economics in the 1980s and the decline of government commitment to racial integration. The neoliberal education strategy has included an ongoing campaign to convince Americans that public schools are failing, policies that transfer public resources to privately run schools, and financing political support at all levels of government for privatization. An investigation of two key policies—charter schools and publicly funded vouchers—reveals how they have resulted in academic failures, widespread corruption, and increased racial and economic segregation. Despite the radical conservative hold on power in the United States, grassroots efforts to preserve democratically controlled public education have produced some creditable local victories.
Intellectual property (IP) law and the art forms it is meant to protect are expanding. In our information age, artists hoping to assert their rights frequently assert a combination of trademark, copyright, and right of publicity or moral rights claims in order to maximize their chances of success. This chapter looks beyond IP law to some of its more unlikely complements – tort and property law – as a viable means of redress for artists who may be ineligible for copyright protection. Specifically, recent cases involving a specific form of hybrid art – land art, or ‘site specific art’ – have determinedly stripped artists of either their moral rights or copyright claims. Thus, I suggest looking to the laws of trespass and nuisance as new ways of thinking about the same problem: how do we balance public rights in our shared artworks with private rights of control? Surprisingly, this chapter suggests that applying nuisance law’s balancing test has much in common with the four-factor balancing test of copyright’s fair use doctrine. On a wider level, this chapter hopes to encourage the ongoing trend of creative ways of thinking about and asserting artistic rights when traditional copyright claims may not be feasible or successful.