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Background

The EU Data Protection International Transfers Restriction Through a Cloud Computing Lens

W. Kuan Hon

• Scope and aim: analysing the restriction under Arts.25–6, EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC) on ‘transfer’ of personal data ‘to’ ‘third countries’ outside the European Economic Area (Restriction), as a barrier to EEA controllers’ processing of digital personal data using public cloud computing. • Physical ‘data localization’ approach of EEA data protection authorities and others. • Basic concepts and terminology regarding cloud computing (service and deployment models, characteristics of infrastructure cloud and layered cloud services). Cloud use in the EU. • Overview of EU data protection laws under the Data Protection Directive, objectives, data controllers, processors, processing, exemptions, national law implementations, supervision, and fundamental data protection principles. • Key aspects of the Restriction. Mechanisms for allowing transfers: adequate protection, adequate safeguards. Derogations. • GDPR’s version of the Restriction. Keywords: cloud computing, Data Protection Directive, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), international transfers, third countries, data localization

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Dirk Lindebaum

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Edited by Steven A. Peterson and Albert Somit

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Mark Tushnet

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Abbreviations/glossary

The EU Data Protection International Transfers Restriction Through a Cloud Computing Lens

W. Kuan Hon

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Abbreviations and acronyms

A Critical Assessment of the EU-SADC Economic Partnership Agreement

Clair Gammage

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Gideon Boas and Pascale Chifflet

International criminal justice describes the response of the international community to mass atrocity. How we respond to war, to the rupture of society and to systematized murder and persecution is at the heart of the issue. Which forms of transitional justice we respond with, and how our goals are best achieved, are important questions. But international criminal justice is about more than responses. How do we learn from history or, sometimes, fail to do so? Can we use our understanding of human psychology to better respond to mass atrocity, or better, to prevent it or react to address it sooner? What of the sociological elements that are infused in our response to heinous international crimes; how do these affect our understanding and practice of international criminal justice? Key words: international; criminal; justice; community; atrocity

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Søren Harnow Klausen

The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of the general notion of innovation, informed by empirical results and with an eye to practical applications. Innovation is distinguished from creativity on the one hand and entrepreneurship on the other, but defined broadly enough to comprise much more than technological inventiveness (for example social innovation). The popular two-step model of innovation processes is criticized and instead an integrated model is proposed as a superior alternative. The notions of macro- and micro-innovation are supplemented by a notion of still subtler, process-immanent improvements. Finally, the close relationship between innovation and learning is examined.

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Brian H. Bix

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Edited by Arno R. Lodder and Andrew D. Murray