The introductory chapter provides a brief overview of the central questions that have inspired policy formulation research in the policy sciences. Distinguishing policy formulation as that activity in the policy process during which policy-makers craft solutions for identified problems, the chapter depicts public policies as being, in essence, government efforts to affect changes in their own or in public behaviour. Formulation is portrayed in this chapter as the result of an interplay of knowledge-based analytics and power-based politics as governments act on articulating feasible policy options to meet social goals, resulting in complex assemblages of policy aims and policy means that are unique to each jurisdiction. The chapter also explains the organizational logic behind how the contributions of this Handbook have been organized.
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Michael Howlett and Ishani Mukherjee
Richard Eccleston, Richard Krever and Helen Smith
This chapter establishes the conceptual and theoretical foundations for the ensuing volume. It summarizes the debates concerning the key features of federal governance before providing an overview of the existing explanations of change in federal systems, with a particular emphasis on the application of new institutionalism to explanations of ‘federal dynamics’. The second section of the chapter focuses on the literature on the impact of financial and economic crises of federal governance before providing an empirical account of the economic impact of the 2008–9 financial crisis on the 12 cases included within the volume. The chapter concludes by outlining how an actor-centred institutionalism is applied to the case studies that follow.
Richard Eccleston, Rob Hortle and Richard Krever
Hakan G. Sicakkan
The term ‘Eurosphere’ is of central importance if we want to properly understand the European public sphere, for without the Eurosphere a European public sphere cannot materialize. The Eurosphere is a concept that was invented by the European Union’s founding generation. They defined the phenomenon as the sphere of those who participate in the European integration processes actively, those who are directly affected by its consequences, and those who affect the integration process by expressing ‘solidarity with the European’. In other words, the Eurosphere is the vertical, top-down, trans-European communicative space of pro-EU and pro-diversity elites and citizens. It is a part of the larger public sphere of Europe. This chapter posits the constitutive role of the Eurosphere in the ongoing formation of a European public sphere. It first presents a brief history of the making of the Eurosphere by the founding fathers of the European Union. Next, linking the two terms causally in a pluralist agonistic perspective, the chapter argues that the Eurosphere has a constitutive role in the formation of the European public sphere. Then it identifies the public spaces, publics, social and political actors (adversaries) and political cleavages and agons that constitute the agonistic public sphere in a transnational setting. Finally, it suggests an analytical framework suited for studying the European public sphere.