This opening chapter for the book will begin with an exposition of the book objectives and structure. It will then move to brief discussions of the three primal notions, which constitute the basis for this book: information, virtual spatial mobility, and connectivity.
Bjørn Hvinden, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Tomáš Sirovátka and Mi Ah Schoyen
The financial crisis has had disproportionally negative effects on the job prospects of young people in Europe. Even in countries and regions less affected by the crisis, a growing number of young people have trouble finding a suitable job. Structural changes in labour markets caused by stronger global competition, combined with new policy frameworks that have weakened employment security and income protection, mean that young people are increasingly likely to find work in temporary, part-time, low-paid and precarious jobs. The chapter discusses different meanings of the concept of early job insecurity and presents key concepts (resilience, capability and active agency) for understanding how many young people cope with such insecurity and avoid its more adverse effects. Finally, the chapter outlines how coordinated public policies might promote the active agency of young people.
Charles A. Ingene and James R. Brown
Distribution channels are arguably the most complex element of the marketing mix. Every level of a channel has pricing, product, place and (often) promotional considerations that must be integrated for a channel to perform at its optimal level. A single distribution channel may have several tiers, often with multiple, independent owners (e.g., a manufacturer distributing through a handful of geographically disbursed wholesalers who deliver to resellers in their territories). Moreover, independent owners may place their own short-term interests ahead of their channels’ long-term welfare. Thus, it is clear that even a single distribution channel is difficult to manage profitably, or for academicians to conceptualize completely. Yet a single channel is intellectual child’s play compared to the intricacies of managing a multi-channel supply chain, while the subtleties of multi-channel organizations can seem all but impenetrable from an academic perspective. Nonetheless, reality is what it is, so as researchers we seek insights into the inner workings and outward manifestations of distribution channels. Toward that end, it would be advantageous to have a general theory so that scholars can envision where their research fits into an overall picture of distribution. We sketch some ideas toward such a theory in the concluding chapter of this Handbook (Chapter 23: “Conceptualizing a comprehensive theory of distribution channels”). Our sketch is merely a stepping stone toward our ultimate, collective objective: creating an empirically validated theory of distribution channels that incorporates all channel forms, everywhen and everywhere, and does so while reflecting the exogenous conditions within which channels operate. In brief, a truly comprehensive theory should encompass distribution channels that range from simple to complex, that provide credible insights over time (i.e., over different stages of technological sophistication), and that are valid in all socio-economic, demographic, cultural, and governmental environments.
Bjørn Hvinden, Christer Hyggen, Mi Ah Schoyen and Jacqueline O’Reilly
The chapter presents the aims of the volume, notably to provide new knowledge about how young women and men experience and handle job insecurity in Europe. An important focus is the ways in which young adults deal with job insecurity through active agency. We ask how structural factors, including public employment and social services, community networks and families, enable or hamper such efforts. Moreover, we introduce the volume’s analyses of potential adverse long-term consequences of having lived at length with difficulties in finding suitable and stable jobs in young adulthood, specifically: scarring in the form of weaker long-term employment prospects, lower life earnings and reduced well-being. The analyses combine in-depth qualitative studies (life-course interviews), use of large-scale quantitative and comparative data, and an employer survey and factorial experiment. Finally, we present an overview of these methods and key concepts, including well-being, scarring, resilience, active agency and negotiation.
John B. Welfield and Le Thuy Trang
Interstate conflict, in the view of one-third of the global decision-makers and experts assembled to compile the World Economic Forum 2015 Global Risks Report, was the most probable serious danger facing the East Asia-Pacific region over the coming decade.1 A Pew Research Center global opinion poll conducted in the spring of 2014 found that people in eight of the 11 Asian countries surveyed expressed fears about possible military conflict over territorial disputes involving the People’s Republic of China and its neighbors. In China itself, more than six in every ten citizens expressed similar concerns. Two-thirds of Americans in 2014 also feared that intensifying territorial disputes between China and its neighbors could spark an armed conflict.2 Although the World Economic Forum 2017 Global Risks Report considered such conflict as a decreasing risk in terms of likelihood and impact,3 majorities in China, Japan and several other East Asian nations remained concerned about territorial tensions and the strategic drama being played out between the United States and China on land and at sea across the region had begun to fuel fears that the “Pacific century” might be shattered by a new Pacific war.4 For better or for worse, Southeast Asia, the region which has given birth to the most vigorous efforts to construct a regional security architecture designed to ensure long-term peace and stability in Asia and the wider Pacific Basin, is today confronted by a series of intractable problems that may well constitute the greatest tests it has faced since the end of the Cold War. Much has been said about the significance of the South China Sea for the security and development of the Indo-Pacific. This sea offers the shortest route from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean. About half of the world’s commerce, half of global liquefied natural gas and a third of global crude oil transit through this body of water each year.5 Two-fifths of the world’s tuna are born in the South China Sea, contributing to a multibillion-dollar fisheries industry.6 These statistics, oft-cited, are just a few indicators of the South China Sea’s importance to the region and the world at large. A durable regional security system that can deliver lasting stability and prosperity for the Indo-Pacific cannot be constructed in the absence of a smoothly functioning regional maritime order in this critical area. Yet this body of water, blessed with so many valuable resources and crisscrossed by a network of vital sea-lanes, has become the home to some of the most intractable territorial disputes in Asia and a stage for intensifying great power strategic competition. The longstanding territorial and maritime disputes simmering in the South China Sea and the machinations of great powers have been slowing down the momentum for regional cooperation and frustrating attempts to forge a robust and mutually beneficial security architecture. There is also another troubling dimension of very great significance. While the tempo of regional cooperation has slackened, the rate at which the South China Sea marine environment is deteriorating has accelerated. Forty percent of the South China Sea’s fish stocks have already been exhausted and, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, most fish resources in the western part of the South China Sea have been exploited or overexploited.7 Meanwhile, 70 percent of the South China Sea’s coral reefs are reported to be in poor or only fair condition.8 Put simply, while the challenges to the South China Sea marine environment are growing, the capacity of regional mechanisms to effectively address those challenges has been undermined or severely constrained.
Chapter 1 highlights the aims of the book and outlines its structure. In particular, it stresses the necessity of inserting what has been recently discovered about Minsky’s analysis during the “Great Recession” into his lifelong research program in order to obtain a more complete picture of both his vision and his analytical apparatus. In this perspective, the task is not simply to re-propose Minsky’s original ideas so as to verify how they are capable of meeting the challenges deriving from the evolution of both the economy and the discipline, but to update, deepen and broaden his analysis. To achieve this task, one must enter Minsky’s black box of tools.
Liza Lovdahl Gormsen
This book explores whether the European Commission’s (the ‘Commission’) recent tax rulings in relation to Member States’ advance pricing arrangements (APAs) reflect a genuine problem of illegal State aid under Article 107 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) or whether the Commission is actually using the State aid rules to harmonise national tax systems in a manner that is contrary to the Treaty.
Hanne S. Birkmose and Konstantinos Sergakis
The discussion on shareholders’ duties has increasingly gained momentum in the EU and has given rise to the adoption of duties in both company law and capital markets law. However, this discussion must be extended further if the duties that are increasingly imposed on shareholders are to have a genuine effect on the viability of the recent regulatory developments in this area.