Few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the relationships between the political world and organised crime groups in France. On the one hand, research on organised crime in France focuses on the influence of foreign groups or on drug-dealing gangs in French suburbs; while on the other hand, political scandals usually reflect financial and white-collar offences, without any connection to the underworld. Drawing on rare academic studies, media investigations and institutional reports, this chapter shows the existence of ties between political actors and gangsters in the recent past. These ties may help to understand how political machines work at the local level and how political parties’ security teams becomeinvolved in criminal activities.
Jean-Louis Briquet and Gilles Favarel-Garrigues
Economic security requirements have played a crucial role in shaping the Sino-American economic relationship. Though American and Chinese authorities face broadly comparable problems, they are confronted by dissimilar policy challenges which they approach in distinct terms. Heightened attention to the economic requirements of national security, particularly in the United States, is generating policy requirements that threaten the basis for Sino-American industrial collaboration and integration. American concerns are exacerbated by increasing concern over China’s economic power and by the convergence of the economic trajectories of China and the United States. Heightened Chinese concern is driven less by the perception that the United States poses a greater economic security threat than in the past than growing concern over its structural role and its recent policy initiatives.
Felia Allum, Stan Gilmour and Catherine Hemmings
A man in his thirties with black hair sits behind a desk. He is a former Camorrista who held an important role in his clan because he was one of the clan’s mediators with local politicians. He is unforgiving of politicians: ‘the ambition of all politicians is to “arrive”,without looking anyone in the eye . . . honestly or dishonestly, the important thing is to arrive’ (interview 1, 1997, p. 3). But then, he explains that politicians were often only manipulated by the Mafiosi in their quest for public contracts and funds: the tendering process for public contracts is organised by the local council, the decisions are taken by a board of councillors, the mayor and his deputy; all these people took orders from us. We knew from the start which contract we wanted to win and then, we would approach them through important people, influential people in the town. For example, builders or councillors, individuals who could approach certain people. We would manipulate the tendering process in our favour, indeed . . . we already knew who would win the contract, we knew who would do what, how much and when. (ibid.)
This article sketches a transdisciplinary theoretical framework for understanding the so-called Anthropocene in terms of global inequalities. The concept of the Anthropocene has several profound implications that challenge central aspects of the modern worldview. Its relation to issues of global justice requires a cataclysmic reconceptualization of conventional notions of development, economic growth, and technological progress. The article refers to the asymmetric global flows of resources that were a prerequisite to the British Industrial Revolution to illustrate how technological systems and so-called energy transitions are not just politically innocent revelations of nature, but thoroughly societal strategies of appropriation. Contemporary observations regarding environmental justice, climate justice, and energy justice can be theorized in terms of the modern inclination to think of the economy as detached from nature, and of technology as detached from world society.
Edited by Louis J. Kotzé
The deployment of complex expert economic evidence is a common feature of competition litigation. However, fundamental differences in thinking between lawyers and economists may have a bearing on the content and presentation of that evidence. This article considers the respective roles of lawyers and economists in competition litigation in the High Court and the Competition Appeal Tribunal, and how those roles interlink in practice.
Personalized pricing can have negative or positive effects for consumers. Concerns are more likely to arise in circumstances where there is limited competition, or where consumers are unaware of, do not understand, and/or cannot avoid personalization. In some circumstances, personalization may be unfair or otherwise illegal under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 or other legislation. It may also distort competition and give rise to consumer harm and thereby infringe UK or EU competition law, or cause markets to not work effectively and therefore justify a market study or investigation by the Competition and Markets Authority (‘CMA’) under the Enterprise Act 2002. This article considers how the CMA will tackle personalized pricing that may distort competition in digital markets.