We introduce here the first volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization: Theory, by L.C. Corch—n and M.A. Marini (eds) by describing its main aim and its basic structure.
Luis C. Corchón and Marco A. Marini
Assessing Behavioural Public Policy
Behavioural public policies or nudges have become ever more popular in recent years, with governments and other public agencies increasingly keen to use light-touch interventions to improve public policies. Nudge units and their equivalents have been established across the world, and bureaucrats often use experiments to test out behavioural interventions. By asking how far to nudge, the book is a review of how behavioural economists, think tank advocates and policy-makers have used nudges, providing many examples of good practice. Some common criticisms of nudge are also reviewed, as is the ethical debate about the loss of individual autonomy. The core claim of the book is that policy-makers could go further than they do currently by adopting a more radical version of the research and policy agenda. By incorporating more conscious thought into behavioural public policies, what is called ‘nudge plus’, while at the same time encouraging a bottom-up and decentralised approach to formulating and authorising nudges, policy-makers can design policies that give more agency to citizens.
Daniel Bonilla Maldonado and Colin Crawford
Luis C. Corchón and Marco A. Marini
We introduce here the second volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, by L. Corch—n and M.A. Marini (eds), describing its main aim and its basic structure.
Stephan W. Schill, Christian J. Tams and Rainer Hofmann
This chapter provides a critical introduction into the state of the art of historical approaches to international investment law. Reviewing the status quo, it traces the use of historical arguments in investor-state dispute settlement and provides an overview of the existing, historically informed scholarship in the field. The chapter then focuses on the blindspots in the historical analysis of international investment law and sketches out how a fuller and more reflective engagement with, and use of, the historical method could benefit the field. To illustrate the potential of historical approaches, the chapter then situates the different contributions to the present book. It concludes by suggesting that historical approaches to international investment law could not only enrich this specialized field of international law, but also stimulate, more generally, the interest of international legal historiography in international economic law and the economic foundations of international law.
Implications for Regions and Industries
Charlie Karlsson, Andreas P. Cornett and Tina Wallin
Migration has been intensifying and diversifying since the 1990s. According to the United Nations International Migration Report, there were 244 million international migrants in 2015 – 10 per cent more than only five years earlier, in 2010 (international migrants are here defined as people living in a given country who are either foreign born or have foreign citizenship). Of these, more than two-thirds (71 per cent) lived in high-income countries, while the developing regions hosted 29 per cent of the world’s total international migrant population. Socio-economic transformations such as those induced and intensified by globalisation processes are usually drivers of increased international migration. They intensify grievances and opportunities that lead people to seek better living and working opportunities in distant lands while also facilitating transport and communication. This Handbook focuses on the dynamics that link migration and globalisation processes from economic, social, political and cultural perspectives, looking at the challenges that emerge for labour markets, welfare systems, families and cultures, and institutions and governance arrangements as well as norms. This introduction discusses in detail, and with reference to the relevant literature, the interconnection between migration and globalisation, and presents the structure of the Handbook.
Chapter 1 explores the rationale for the creation of a multilateral trading system in the aftermath of the Second World War. It examines the efforts for the creation of an International Trade Organization (ITO) and the use of the method of Provisional Application for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947 (GATT 1947) and discusses the three theories that have been used to explain the creation of the GATT. Some of the additional rules obligations negotiated in the context of WTO protocols of accession might prove to be initial attempts to address the realities posed by 21st century ‘supply-chain’ trade. This chapter introduces one of the overarching questions addressed in this book, namely whether negotiations in the context of WTO accession have sometimes been a ‘rule-making laboratory’ in which the WTO has attempted to gradually reform some of the disciplines that currently underpin the organization.