Steven W. Floyd and Bill Wooldridge
A Critical Assessment
Matthias Finger and Kenneth Button
David Crowther and Linne Marie Lauesen
Edited by Geraint Johnes, Jill Johnes, Tommaso Agasisti and Laura López-Torres
Alina Averchenkova, Sam Fankhauser and Michal Nachmany
Chapter 1 offers an overview of the book and summarizes the state and trends in climate change legislation. Making use of a unique global database, Climate Change Laws of the World, the chapter identifies over 1,200 climate change laws and policies of similar stature in the 164 countries the data covers. This stock of laws is the result of over 20 years of policy making and speaks to the growing attention that legislators are devoting to climate change. In 1997, at the time the Kyoto Protocol was signed, there were only about 60 relevant laws and policies. Countries use different routes to address climate change. In some countries the primary avenue is acts of parliament, that is, formal laws passed by the legislative branch. In others, the policy direction is defined through executive orders, decrees and strategies. Climate change laws also differ in scope and ambition. Some laws are specifically focused on climate change, advancing explicitly emissions reduction or adaptation targets. Others introduce climate concerns into sector policies, such as those on energy, or broader development plans. Understanding these different approaches becomes increasingly important as countries implement their pledges under the Paris Agreement.
David Grant and Lyria Bennett Moses
Chapter 1 presents the principal argument of the book, that Technology is best understood within the context of a broad historical trajectory. The notion of the trajectory emerges from a critique and elaboration of two elements of major works by Hans Blumenberg: the concept of a modern mythology and the legitimacy of the modern age. This chapter argues that modern mythological magnitudes – Deity, State and Market – have been imagined as archetypally fearsome entities to deal with our existential concerns, and each has an associated regime of practice promoted by a dominant interest and which constitutes at the same time both the subjection of the individual and the empowerment of the magnitude and of those interests. Because of their fearsomeness, the claim is made by respective dominant interests that each magnitude will, on condition of the subjection of individuals, eliminate their existential concerns and deliver sympathetic conditions to them. Technology is the subject of the latest of such systematic claims, in this case that individuals will be empowered to overcome such concerns by being enabled to create the conditions of their own existence, an Absolutism of the Subject. It is argued that the production of a regime of self-responsibility rather than of subjection offers a way out of this mythological maze.
Geraint Johnes, Jill Johnes and Laura López-Torres
The evaluation of the returns to investments in human capital has been at the core of the economics of education since the seminal work of Theodore Schultz published in 1961. The most significant methodological advances have come in parallel with more general developments in applied microeconometrics, such as the particular interest in issues of causality and unobserved heterogeneity. The new empirical findings document a widespread decline in rates of return to education over time. In this chapter we review some developments and present new international comparative results on the heterogeneity of returns to education. Apart from reviewing endogeneity and heterogeneity issues, we also pay attention to the main findings on return to early years education and returns to overeducation.
Building Resilience Through Transitions
Katharine McGowan, Frances Westley and Ola Tjörnbo
Vilma Žydžiūnaitė and Loreta Tauginienė
Grounded theory (GT) is a qualitative methodology, which derives its name from the practice of generating theory from research, which is grounded in data (Babchuk 1997). Three GT methodologies have evolved, namely B.G. Glaser’s classic, A.L. Strauss and J. Corbin’s structured and K. Charmaz’s (1983, 2005, 2006, 2014) social constructivist methodology. The thematic analysis based on GT is usually called applied thematic analysis (ATA) (Braun and Clarke 2006). As GT is designed to construct theories that are grounded in the empirical data themselves (Guest et al. 2012) this aspect is also reflected in ATA because its process also consists of reading transcripts, identifying and comparing themes, and building theoretical models (Boyatzis 1998).