This chapter takes issue with what the authors identify as a tendency in the literature to overestimate middle managers’ strategic role, and perhaps more importantly, to underestimate top managers’ role in emergent strategy and the development of strategic initiatives. The authors argue that the Bower_Burgelman model – originally developed as descriptive theory – has been overinterpreted as a normative model. The result is a view of top managers’ role as process architect rather than active participant in emergent processes. These scholars argue that there are circumstances requiring a more substantive role. Crucial to understanding this claim, the authors observe that the unit of analysis – who is a middle and who is a top manager – depends on what level of strategy making constitutes the research focus. The chapter takes a contingent view and identifies four conditions requiring direction from top management in emergent processes.
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Xavier Castañer and Howard Yu
Positioning Women in Science
Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell
Chapter 1 asks the questions: why should men dominate the senior roles in the science workplace; why do women not achieve as highly as men, despite women being in the majority at the lower grades? The introduction presents a new framework whereby four mechanisms act together to keep women in their subordinate ‘place’: subtle masculinities, whereby masculine cultures in science tend to privilege men and marginalize women; secret careers, whereby subtle masculinities invade heterosexual households so that women conduct their careers in secret, hiding their career aspirations from their partners; the concept of creative genius that is associated with male bodies, meaning that women find it hard to envision themselves (or be envisioned by others) in such a role; and m[o]therhood, in which women’s potential for maternity positions them as different and ‘other’. The introduction also provides information on the research design, ethical consideration and a concise review of global literature on women in science.
Birgit Schyns, Pedro Neves and Rosalie J. Hall
This volume provides an overview of a variety of established and newer methods for leadership research. It is intended for any individuals wanting to undertake research on leadership, whether they are academics or practitioners, undergraduates, graduate students working on a dissertation, or new or established professionals. It will be particularly useful for academics who want to try a new method and graduate students working on a dissertation who want an overview of what is out there. This book covers quantitative as well as qualitative methods but with a stronger focus on the former than the latter. Included are chapters focusing on measurement and design as well as analytical methods. All chapters outline a method and provide examples of how to apply the method to leadership research. It concludes with an overview of the future of leadership research.
Steven W. Floyd and Bill Wooldridge
David Crowther and Linne Marie Lauesen
Alina Averchenkova, Sam Fankhauser and Michal Nachmany
Chapter 1 offers an overview of the book and summarizes the state and trends in climate change legislation. Making use of a unique global database, Climate Change Laws of the World, the chapter identifies over 1,200 climate change laws and policies of similar stature in the 164 countries the data covers. This stock of laws is the result of over 20 years of policy making and speaks to the growing attention that legislators are devoting to climate change. In 1997, at the time the Kyoto Protocol was signed, there were only about 60 relevant laws and policies. Countries use different routes to address climate change. In some countries the primary avenue is acts of parliament, that is, formal laws passed by the legislative branch. In others, the policy direction is defined through executive orders, decrees and strategies. Climate change laws also differ in scope and ambition. Some laws are specifically focused on climate change, advancing explicitly emissions reduction or adaptation targets. Others introduce climate concerns into sector policies, such as those on energy, or broader development plans. Understanding these different approaches becomes increasingly important as countries implement their pledges under the Paris Agreement.
Vilma Žydžiūnaitė and Loreta Tauginienė
Grounded theory (GT) is a qualitative methodology, which derives its name from the practice of generating theory from research, which is grounded in data (Babchuk 1997). Three GT methodologies have evolved, namely B.G. Glaser’s classic, A.L. Strauss and J. Corbin’s structured and K. Charmaz’s (1983, 2005, 2006, 2014) social constructivist methodology. The thematic analysis based on GT is usually called applied thematic analysis (ATA) (Braun and Clarke 2006). As GT is designed to construct theories that are grounded in the empirical data themselves (Guest et al. 2012) this aspect is also reflected in ATA because its process also consists of reading transcripts, identifying and comparing themes, and building theoretical models (Boyatzis 1998).
The Complexities of Individual and Organizational Decision-Making
Karin Brunsson and Nils Brunsson
Many, although far from all, human actions are preceded by decisions. Decisions are needed when action is not routinized or when there are no clear institutionalized rules for how to act. Decision-making can follow four types of logics – the logics of consequences, of appropriateness, of imitation and of experimentation. An extreme form of the logic of consequences is the model of rational decision-making according to which decision makers shall be able to predict and weigh their future preference and all relevant action options and their consequences. But these expectations are almost impossible to meet. In contemporary society the logic of consequences and especially its rational variant have a higher status than the other logics. Whichever logic used before the action, decision makers are expected to justify their decisions by using the logic of consequences in a relatively rational version.
Convenience in White-Collar Crime
Convenience is a concept that was theoretically mainly associated with efficiency in time savings. Today, convenience is associated with a number of other characteristics, such as reduced effort and reduced pain. Convenience is associated with terms such as fast, easy, and safe. Convenience says something about attractiveness and accessibility. A convenient individual is not necessarily bad or lazy. On the contrary, the person can be seen as smart and rational. Convenience orientation is conceptualized as the value that individuals and organizations place on actions with inherent characteristics of saving time and effort. Convenience orientation can be considered a value-like construct that influences behavior and decision-making.
Regina Wentzel Wolfe and Patricia H. Werhane
Jeroo Billimoria is the founder of nine social ventures, including MelJol, Childline India, Child Helpline International, Aflatoun International and Child and Youth Finance International (CYFI). She is considered one of the world’s leading social entrepreneurs. She has been an Ashoka Fellow since 1998 and is a Schwab Fellow of the World Economic Forum. In 2006 she received a Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship. She serves on the boards of MelJol, Child Helpline International, Aflatoun International and CYFI. In January 2017 Ms. Billimoria stepped down as Managing Director of CYFI to take some time off for personal growth and development.