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Atsede T. Hailemariam and Brigitte Kroon

Atsede T. Hailemariam and Brigitte Kroon explore the meaning of success for female Ethiopian entrepreneurs. Taking a contextually embedded approach using qualitative data and considering structural, familial and cultural constraints, the authors challenge the notion of the underperformance of women entrepreneurs by highlighting how various female entrepreneurs define success. They explain that women entrepreneurs evaluate success in business both in financial and non-financial terms. While some women entrepreneurs define success as achieving self-fulfilment and in terms of their contribution to society and family, others emphasize communal and religious values in their definition of success. It tends to be the young, educated females and those who have experience and operate more than one business or engage in male-dominated sectors who define their success in terms of profit and growth. The implication for policy-makers relates to the need to pay more attention to the heterogeneity of women entrepreneurs and to non-financial measures of performance as they design policy and support programs to create an entrepreneurial ecosystem that is conducive to entrepreneurship.

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Preface

Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research

Edited by Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn and Silke Tegtmeier

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Carrie Pitzulo

In postwar America, sexual rebellion, change, and progress are associated with the late 1960s and the 1970s. But as this chapter demonstrates, the seeds of change were planted in the unlikeliest of places, amid the conservative 1950s. With his wildly popular Playboy magazine, Hugh Hefner claimed a position of leadership in the nation’s changing sexual culture. Advocating sympathy and tolerance for homosexuality, as well as women’s reproductive freedom, Hefner used his men’s magazine to advance a more equitable society.

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James K. Beggan and Scott T. Allison

As an area of study, the intersection between leadership and sexuality has not been adequately addressed, despite the importance of sexual issues influencing leadership processes. To address this limitation, this chapter introduces three distinct ways in which to understand sexuality and leadership. One way is in terms of sexual leaders, i.e., individuals or organizations that put forward new ideas about how people should embrace their sexuality. The second way relates to how leaders, regardless of the industry or environment in which they lead, must think about the way that sexuality influences how they should govern. The third area, the sexuality of leaders, focuses on how the sexual desires that people have or the decisions they make may be influenced by their role as leaders.

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Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn and Silke Tegtmeier

This chapter aims – both through the chapters included in this volume and by revisiting some of the earlier volumes – to take stock and elaborate on the possible future directions for European entrepreneurship research. The chapter suggests the features of European entrepreneurship research contextual embeddedness, methodological diversity and distinctive clusters that, in combination, have resulted in versatile contributions that characterize the European entrepreneurship research field.

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Introduction

Networked Multinational Enterprises in the Modern Global Economy

Peter J. Buckley

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Introduction

A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research

Shumaila Yousafzai, Alain Fayolle, Adam Lindgreen, Colette Henry, Saadat Saeed and Shandana Sheikh

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Mark Casson

This chapter is based on an unpublished paper presented at a plenary session on 40 years of internalization theory at a conference in Vienna  in December 2016. It examines the evolution of the internalization theory of the multinational enterprise over the past 40 years and, in the light of this, considers its potential for further development. The existing theory represents a synthesis of different strands of research, underpinned by a common set of economic principles. Its focus is on the global economy, and a representative global industry, rather than just the individual firm. The chapter shows how the existing theory can be extended to fulfil the ultimate ambition of early theorists, which was to analyse the boundaries of firms in an oligopolistic global industry.

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Foreword

Networked Multinational Enterprises in the Modern Global Economy

Peter J. Buckley