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Sangeeta Khorana and María García
Nicholas Perdikis and Laurie Perdikis
The chapter begins with a brief historical overview of the principal catalysts, both economic and political for European economic integration, before moving on to discuss the theoretical foundations of economic integration and the economic and trade implications of the Treaty of Rome. The chapter then proceeds to outline the development of the EU’s trade policy and how this was affected by its deepening and widening, as well as the impact international factors had on that process. The principal areas of EU trade policy are also covered – in particular its multilateral aspects, its bilateral and plurilateral arrangements and its unilateral policy covering the Generalised Scheme of Preferences or GSP. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the future direction and re-calibration of the EU’s trade policy towards relationships with Far Eastern economies via its ‘Trade for All’ policy document.
Despite 40 years of research on sustainability, most of the commonly used measures of sustainability such as pollution, population, consumption, biodiversity and atmospheric carbon have all worsened on a global scale. This chapter suggests we must go beyond scientific research and study problems to solve what could be termed the real-world problems of global sustainability. It discusses transdisciplinary sustainability science that is impactful and responsive to stakeholders’ needs. It seeks to understand better the interactions between natural and human systems in key challenge areas, including global climate change, food–water–energy, biodiversity and natural assets, environmental impacts on health, oceans, urbanization, sustainable consumption and production, and governance processes. It also discusses what is termed Future Earth's “knowledge action networks” designed to develop transdisciplinary, stakeholder-engaged, co-designed solutions.
Elaine Farndale, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Chris Brewster
The subject of comparative human resource management (HRM) and its boundaries are established, discussing the role of context in HRM. The question is then raised whether globalisation is making such an analysis increasingly irrelevant as societies seem to converge. To investigate convergence further, the chapter explores levels and units of analysis of comparative HRM. The chapter also outlines the shape and content of the Handbook, which includes theoretical and empirical issues in comparative HRM, the way that these affect particular elements of HRM, and the way that different countries and regions think about the topic.
This chapter is based on an unpublished paper presented at a plenary session on 40 years of internalization theory at a conference in Vienna in December 2016. It examines the evolution of the internalization theory of the multinational enterprise over the past 40 years and, in the light of this, considers its potential for further development. The existing theory represents a synthesis of different strands of research, underpinned by a common set of economic principles. Its focus is on the global economy, and a representative global industry, rather than just the individual firm. The chapter shows how the existing theory can be extended to fulfil the ultimate ambition of early theorists, which was to analyse the boundaries of firms in an oligopolistic global industry.