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Thomas David DuBois

This chapter examines the roots of public welfare in China, spanning the crucial 100 years before the 1949 founding of the People’s Republic, and highlighting the political importance of welfare provision across a range of very different Chinese regimes. Rather than attempting to map the contemporary Western understanding of welfare onto history, it presents Chinese ideas and institutions on their own terms. During the late nineteenth century, well-established traditions of State and private charity provision began to transform in the face of new pressures and opportunities, including the arrival of Christian missionary institutions. In the early twentieth century, China was divided into a number of regimes, including the Republic of China, the Communist-held areas and the Japanese client regime in Manchuria. This political fragmentation caused the welfare tradition to diversify into a number of competing ideologies and strategies. The transformation of welfare provision during this century was driven by a number of interrelated processes: the growing influence of foreign actors and institutions; the formation of legal and legislative frameworks for the rights and responsibilities of welfare providers; and the shift in balance between private and State initiative, and between disaster relief and longer-term programmes of economic development. This history continues to tangibly shape contemporary political and social attitudes towards welfare provision.

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Beatriz Carrillo, Johanna Hood and Paul Kadetz

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References

The Political Economy of Conflict and Cooperation

Jeffrey D. Wilson

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Towards a Capitalist Manifesto

Sung-Hee Jwa

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Preface

Towards a Capitalist Manifesto

Sung-Hee Jwa

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Introduction: Asia-Pacific resource politics between boom and crisis

The Political Economy of Conflict and Cooperation

Jeffrey D. Wilson

What explains the emergence of international resource conflicts in the Asia-Pacific during the last decade? This chapter first introduces the empirical scope of this book – providing a broad overview of the global resource boom of the 2000s, the resource security challenges it has posed, and emerging patterns of inter-governmental conflict these have engendered. It then reviews existing theoretical approaches to international resource politics, outlining how these fail to move beyond the systemic level to probe the wider range of factors at both the international and domestic levels driving government’s policy behaviour. It argues that to adequately explain these dynamics, it is necessary to examine why resource interdependence has become a securitised policy domain, and the political-economic factors driving this shift.

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Introduction

Towards a Capitalist Manifesto

Sung-Hee Jwa

This introductory chapter lays out several myths about economic development, namely, that: (1) economic development is achievable by all nations; (2) economic development requires balanced growth; (3) inequality is a major obstacle to economic development; (4) economic policy should avoid ideological biases; (5) democracy is a precondition of development; (6) prosperous neighbours are bad for development; (7) markets are the elixir of economic development; (8) markets versus governments; (9) corporations are bad for economic development; (10) industrial policy is unfair practice; and (11) economic development is viewed as the accumulation of a nation’s resources. These myths are revisited in the final chapter of the book.

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Simon Marsden

Chapter 1 introduces the book, sets out the scope and aims, and outlines the research questions and methodology. A common framework for analysing each of the regimes is explained and justified, with reference to the scholarship of international law, international political economy and global politics. Chapter 1 also outlines and distinguishes between regions and subregions in Asia, and discusses environmental regimes in the literatures. It considers the geography of Asia as a region and the environmental issues it faces, examining the numerous international and regional institutions that operate there. It also reviews the discourse and scholarship in connection with regions and subregions developed by these institutions and by academic commentators, with a focus on the development of further institutions to respond to the needs identified. The notion and practicality of regime effectiveness is also considered. Keywords: Asia, subregions, environment, regime, effectiveness

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Anwar Shah, Karim Khan and Hayat Khan

The mainstream economic theory assumes that individuals’ preferences are exogenous and self-regarding. However, the laboratory experiments show that in most of the cases, individuals’ preferences exhibit regard for others. It is widely believed that values and norms can foster the other-regarding behaviour by constraining selfishness. This does not imply that selfish behaviour is dead as there is enough experimental evidence that other-regarding individuals use information asymmetry for their personal gains. In this study, while controlling for one aspect of values, that is, religion, we investigate whether individuals behave significantly differently when we control for their religiosity. We examine the behaviours of proposers in a modified ultimatum game after priming their religious identity. Using hadith, saying of the Holy Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH), as a priming instrument, we find that most of the proposers make equitable offers to the responders as compared to the controlled treatment. This is in spite of the fact that the proposers could use information asymmetry regarding the size of the pie for maximizing their private gains. The study suggests that promoting universal values can be beneficial for the promotion of pro-social or other-regarding behaviour.

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M. Kabir Hassan