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Edited by Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
This is the first book to bring together expert researchers in the field of expatriate studies. The need for such a book is timely. The world is becoming smaller with the international movement of individuals – as expatriates, business travellers, highly skilled workers and migrants – at an all time high. Expatriation is being increasingly researched and taught in business schools as part of broader and more general international human resource management (IHRM) and global business courses. Expatriates are increasing in their number and profile, with many different types, and many issues and challenges they must overcome. This Research Handbook of Expatriates brings together the work of some of the world’s leading and up-and-coming scholars to present a solid overview of the field of expatriate studies to date, as well as to inform and excite future academic scholars and practitioners to the possibilities of conducting, collaborating on or utilizing research arising from expatriate studies. In this introductory chapter, we illustrate that expatriation as a teaching and research subject has existed for over 60 years. Although it is often assumed that the birth of expatriate studies occurred in the 1980s with publications by Rosalie Tung and J. Stewart Black, or perhaps a little earlier in the 1970s with studies by Anders Edstrom and Jay Galbraith, a review of extant literature shows that a substantial body of expatriate research existed well before this time. We provide an overview of expatriate studies from 1952 to 1979 highlighting that, while much of this early literature (and most especially pre-1970) was lacking in theoretical grounding and with only a few empirical studies published, it nonetheless provided an initial foundation upon which subsequent research and interest in expatriate studies would come to be based. We similarly highlight research by a core group of early scholars whose names would become synonymous with research about expatriates. Although long forgotten today, we owe a debt of gratitude to Cecil Howard, John Ivancevich, Yoram Ziera, Anant Negandhi, and Edwin Miller (among others) for pioneering early expatriate studies.
Edited by Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
Yvonne McNulty and Chris Brewster
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the conceptual development of business expatriates over the past 50 years. We do so in light of the rapid growth in new forms of expatriates and other types of international work, and due to an increasing proliferation of terms and sloppy application of concepts in the field of expatriate studies most especially over the last decade. Our goal is to narrow the focus to establish construct clarity and to develop a theory-specific statement about business expatriates. Our intention is three-fold: (1) to illustrate poor construct clarity by demonstrating that the word ‘expatriate’ no longer adequately describes the concept it claims to investigate in management studies; (2) to assist the field of expatriate studies to be clearer about whom it is actually researching; and, (3) to stimulate and provoke a necessary debate towards improving conceptualization of the business expatriate concept. We begin by defining expatriates more broadly and providing an overview of the categorization of international work experiences. We then critique the conceptualization of business expatriates by first discussing the problem of terminological confusion in the field of expatriate studies in general and then developing a clearer theory-specific statement about business expatriates in particular. Next, we examine business expatriates in the literature and categorize them into two streams – organization-assigned expatriates (AEs) and self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) – including in each stream their various types and forms. Critiquing the literature to determine the distinction between business expatriates and sojourners, migrants and business travellers follows this. Lastly we draw some conclusions and provide a glossary of terms for future research.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the collection. Adults spend over one-third of their waking hours at work. Work can enhance or diminish well-being. Well-being is an umbrella concept including happiness, satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing among others. Stress at work is a major factor influencing well-being. Workplace stress exerts a high financial cost to societies, thus well-being is important for both individuals and organizations. Sources of stress that have received research attention include long work hours, autocratic leadership, bias and discrimination, sexual harassment, low levels of job security, and unsafe work environments. The goal for organizations then is to create more psychologically healthy and positive workplaces. Factors associated with such workplaces include types of leadership (transformational, servant), levels of job security, reasonable workloads, opportunities to increase person–job fit, training and development opportunities, high levels of job civility and fairness, investments in developing human capital in all employees, and fun at work. Organizational case studies of psychologically healthy workplaces are offered.