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Despite 40 years of research on sustainability, most of the commonly used measures of sustainability such as pollution, population, consumption, biodiversity and atmospheric carbon have all worsened on a global scale. This chapter suggests we must go beyond scientific research and study problems to solve what could be termed the real-world problems of global sustainability. It discusses transdisciplinary sustainability science that is impactful and responsive to stakeholders’ needs. It seeks to understand better the interactions between natural and human systems in key challenge areas, including global climate change, food–water–energy, biodiversity and natural assets, environmental impacts on health, oceans, urbanization, sustainable consumption and production, and governance processes. It also discusses what is termed Future Earth's “knowledge action networks” designed to develop transdisciplinary, stakeholder-engaged, co-designed solutions.
Elaine Farndale, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Chris Brewster
The subject of comparative human resource management (HRM) and its boundaries are established, discussing the role of context in HRM. The question is then raised whether globalisation is making such an analysis increasingly irrelevant as societies seem to converge. To investigate convergence further, the chapter explores levels and units of analysis of comparative HRM. The chapter also outlines the shape and content of the Handbook, which includes theoretical and empirical issues in comparative HRM, the way that these affect particular elements of HRM, and the way that different countries and regions think about the topic.
This chapter is based on an unpublished paper presented at a plenary session on 40 years of internalization theory at a conference in Vienna in December 2016. It examines the evolution of the internalization theory of the multinational enterprise over the past 40 years and, in the light of this, considers its potential for further development. The existing theory represents a synthesis of different strands of research, underpinned by a common set of economic principles. Its focus is on the global economy, and a representative global industry, rather than just the individual firm. The chapter shows how the existing theory can be extended to fulfil the ultimate ambition of early theorists, which was to analyse the boundaries of firms in an oligopolistic global industry.
The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface
Colin Turner and Debra Johnson
Infrastructuring is core to understanding state territoriality. It is the provision of the physical structures that are central to understanding the control that states seek to assert over their territory. This infrastructuring strategy is contextualised in terms of a defined infrastructural mandate which identifies the multi-functional role that infrastructure plays in state territoriality. The infrastructural mandate stresses that states seek a National Infrastructure System to perform a number of functions, namely to offer territorial integration, security, control and growth.