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Chan S. Jung

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Chan S. Jung

This chapter provides conceptual explanations about goal and ambiguity separately. Then goal ambiguity in public management is explained in terms of definition, importance, and paradox. Goal ambiguity is defined as the extent to which a set of goals in a public program or an organization allows different interpretations in deciding work related to target, time limit, and external evaluation. Ambiguous goals can have negative effects throughout a program, an organization, and further on citizens and society and on public service performance. However, public managers must face dilemmatic situations between clear goals for (rational) managerial strategy and ambiguous goals for political need (e.g. interventions on the society versus broader political support), which is called the paradox of goal ambiguity. Then this chapter describes the plan of this book.

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Cyril F. Chang, Howard P. Tuckman and Grace L. Chikoto-Schultz

Using a select set of literature, this chapter reviews the progress in the line of research focusing on nonprofit income diversity and issues of financial health. General consensus exists on the diversity of revenue dependence across nonprofit fields, revealing heavy dependence on commercial revenue by some, on private contributions by others and diversified sources by others. We also address recent developments in theory building and testing that help explain these patterns. Although the literature on revenue diversification reveal mixed results, the general pattern shows a positive association between diversification and financial stability. However, close attention to the composition of an income portfolio is needed. Conversely, revenue concentration is generally associated with financial growth, albeit tempered by an increasing recognition of the limits of persistently concentrated revenue portfolios. We conclude by addressing the merits and gaps in current research, including the quality of current data, its access, scope and specificity.

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Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young

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Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young

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Introduction and rationale

An Introduction

Edoardo Ongaro

This chapter points to the gap in the current literatures in public governance, public administration and public management as regards the philosophical issues – ontological, political philosophical and epistemological – that underlie and ground any inquiry into public administration topics. The chapter examines this gap and addresses defining issues about how to characterise the field of public administration, on one hand, and about what philosophy is, what questions it addresses that are not tackled by the social sciences and what constitutes progress in philosophical thought, on the other hand. On these bases, it provides an outline of the book.

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Foreword

An Introduction

Geert Bouckaert

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An uphill struggle

A Fitness Landscape Model Approach

Lasse Gerrits and Peter Marks

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Foreword

A Benefits Approach

Dennis R. Young