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Michael H. Morris, Susana C. Santos and Xaver Neumeyer
Robert D. Hisrich and Veland Ramadani
Paul D. Reynolds
On October 28, 2003 Harvard students could use “Facemash” to compare which photos of two undergraduates were “hot” or “not hot.” Developed as personal project by Mark Zuckerberg it was followed by several other efforts that led to the implementation of “Thefacebook” on February 4, 2004; this provided students a mechanism for internet based social interaction. A five person start-up team embellished the potential for interaction and expanded access to other universities, high schools and eventually anybody over 13 years old. When the first public offering was initiated in 2012, “Facebook” reported annual revenue of $5 billion, yearly profits of $53 million, one billion users, and 4,619 employees.1 Convinced that a properly designed website could provide an efficient and economical interface between citizens and government agencies, high school buddies Kaleil Tuzman and Tom Herman used seed money from Herman’s mother to implement “Govworks.com” to process parking tickets in May 1999. A four person start-up team led the website development and within 18 months “Govworks.com” raised $70 million to support 250 employees. Out maneuvered by competitors such as “ezgov. com,” unable to manage the complex technical issues, and confronted with a dramatic decline in stock market valuations of internet based initial public offerings, by January 2001 the remnants of the firm were sold for $12 million.
Paul D. Reynolds
Maritza I. Espina, Phillip H. Phan and Gideon D. Markman
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Giovanni B. Dagnino, Sharon Alvarez and Rosario Faraci
Considering the current state of knowledge in entrepreneurship education, we call for a pragmatic and critical approach in the development of future perspectives on entrepreneurship education research. We highlight the need to develop research focusing on the three main dimensions: target, connect and reflect. Target refers to building theoretical foundations. Connect and reflect refer to bridging disciplines and communities (research and practice) and increasing the critical thinking perspective respectively. In this line of thoughts, this chapter presents the different contributions of the Research Agenda in Entrepreneurship Education book. This collective work is an attempt to promote innovative and to a certain extent provocative contributions aiming at producing knowledge on the three dimensions above. Our intention is to bring a significant value to entrepreneurship education researchers, policy-makers and practitioners.
Sharon Alvarez, Elias G. Carayannis, Giovanni Battista Dagnino and Rosario Faraci
In the introductory chapter, the authors spell out the contributions that the book advances to the emerging debate on entrepreneurial ecosystems and the diffusion of startups, and illustrate the reasons that led them to gather nine relevant conceptual and empirical contributions written by 21 leading scholars from various parts of the world in the field of entrepreneurship and strategy. They define the target audience of the book as entrepreneurship and strategy students, academics and a wide array of practitioners, such as entrepreneurs, executives, consultants and policy makers. The structure of the book is outlined and an overview of the chapters provided.
Israel Drori and Mike Wright
In this chapter, the editors, Mike Wright and Israel Drori, describe the variety of structures, processes and outcomes characterizing accelerators, based on their field research in accelerators across Europe, Israel and the US, and follow with an overview of the book, concluding with a summary of how accelerators are the building blocks of the new economy’s innovative ecosystems.