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Paul D. Reynolds
Paul D. Reynolds
On October 28, 2003 Harvard students could use “Facemash” to compare which photos of two undergraduates were “hot” or “not hot.” Developed as personal project by Mark Zuckerberg it was followed by several other efforts that led to the implementation of “Thefacebook” on February 4, 2004; this provided students a mechanism for internet based social interaction. A five person start-up team embellished the potential for interaction and expanded access to other universities, high schools and eventually anybody over 13 years old. When the first public offering was initiated in 2012, “Facebook” reported annual revenue of $5 billion, yearly profits of $53 million, one billion users, and 4,619 employees.1 Convinced that a properly designed website could provide an efficient and economical interface between citizens and government agencies, high school buddies Kaleil Tuzman and Tom Herman used seed money from Herman’s mother to implement “Govworks.com” to process parking tickets in May 1999. A four person start-up team led the website development and within 18 months “Govworks.com” raised $70 million to support 250 employees. Out maneuvered by competitors such as “ezgov. com,” unable to manage the complex technical issues, and confronted with a dramatic decline in stock market valuations of internet based initial public offerings, by January 2001 the remnants of the firm were sold for $12 million.
Robert D. Hisrich and Veland Ramadani
Maritza I. Espina, Phillip H. Phan and Gideon D. Markman
Sharon Alvarez, Elias G. Carayannis, Giovanni Battista Dagnino and Rosario Faraci
In the introductory chapter, the authors spell out the contributions that the book advances to the emerging debate on entrepreneurial ecosystems and the diffusion of startups, and illustrate the reasons that led them to gather nine relevant conceptual and empirical contributions written by 21 leading scholars from various parts of the world in the field of entrepreneurship and strategy. They define the target audience of the book as entrepreneurship and strategy students, academics and a wide array of practitioners, such as entrepreneurs, executives, consultants and policy makers. The structure of the book is outlined and an overview of the chapters provided.
Considering the current state of knowledge in entrepreneurship education, we call for a pragmatic and critical approach in the development of future perspectives on entrepreneurship education research. We highlight the need to develop research focusing on the three main dimensions: target, connect and reflect. Target refers to building theoretical foundations. Connect and reflect refer to bridging disciplines and communities (research and practice) and increasing the critical thinking perspective respectively. In this line of thoughts, this chapter presents the different contributions of the Research Agenda in Entrepreneurship Education book. This collective work is an attempt to promote innovative and to a certain extent provocative contributions aiming at producing knowledge on the three dimensions above. Our intention is to bring a significant value to entrepreneurship education researchers, policy-makers and practitioners.
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Giovanni B. Dagnino, Sharon Alvarez and Rosario Faraci
Luciana Lazzeretti, Francesco Capone and Niccolò Innocenti
This chapter has a twofold objective. First, it aims to contribute to addressing the fragmentation of the literature on the creative economy, and second, to lay the foundation for an economics of creative industries. Following a bibliometric approach, the authors analyse all publications collected from the ISI Web of Science database, starting from 1998 and ending in 2016. Through the analysis of nearly 1600 publications, they study the evolution of creative economy research (CER). They apply a co-citation analysis developed using social network analysis, thereby exploring the ‘founders’ and ‘disseminators’ of cultural and creative industries (CCIs). Results underline that CCIs are not only the major topic in CER research, but this trend has become stronger in the last few years. In addition, evidence of this work strongly confirms the relevance of CCIs in the contemporary economy. This importance can only be expected to grow in the future. This last result supports the hypothesis concerning the foundation of an economics of creative industries.