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A Benefits Approach
Dennis R. Young
Edited by Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
The Process of Becoming an Entrepreneur
Edited by Thomas N. Duening and Matthew L. Metzger
Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
This is the first book to bring together expert researchers in the field of expatriate studies. The need for such a book is timely. The world is becoming smaller with the international movement of individuals – as expatriates, business travellers, highly skilled workers and migrants – at an all time high. Expatriation is being increasingly researched and taught in business schools as part of broader and more general international human resource management (IHRM) and global business courses. Expatriates are increasing in their number and profile, with many different types, and many issues and challenges they must overcome. This Research Handbook of Expatriates brings together the work of some of the world’s leading and up-and-coming scholars to present a solid overview of the field of expatriate studies to date, as well as to inform and excite future academic scholars and practitioners to the possibilities of conducting, collaborating on or utilizing research arising from expatriate studies. In this introductory chapter, we illustrate that expatriation as a teaching and research subject has existed for over 60 years. Although it is often assumed that the birth of expatriate studies occurred in the 1980s with publications by Rosalie Tung and J. Stewart Black, or perhaps a little earlier in the 1970s with studies by Anders Edstrom and Jay Galbraith, a review of extant literature shows that a substantial body of expatriate research existed well before this time. We provide an overview of expatriate studies from 1952 to 1979 highlighting that, while much of this early literature (and most especially pre-1970) was lacking in theoretical grounding and with only a few empirical studies published, it nonetheless provided an initial foundation upon which subsequent research and interest in expatriate studies would come to be based. We similarly highlight research by a core group of early scholars whose names would become synonymous with research about expatriates. Although long forgotten today, we owe a debt of gratitude to Cecil Howard, John Ivancevich, Yoram Ziera, Anant Negandhi, and Edwin Miller (among others) for pioneering early expatriate studies.
This introductory chapter articulates both the theoretical and practical relevance of examining the interface between critical theory – with its aim to emancipate – and emotion regulation. It demonstrates the synergistic potential of combining relevant literatures to better understand why emotions should be regulated one way rather than another toward worker emancipation. Boundary conditions and clarifications are offered to clearly delineate the theorizing in the book, especially in relation to the emotions of interest in this (namely, shame, guilt, happiness and anger).
A Benefits Approach
Dennis R. Young
If you’re ever in Stockholm, Sweden you should visit the Vasa Museum (Vasamuseet in Swedish). It is one of Stockholm’s most popular tourist attractions and one of the most popular museums in Europe. The museum was built for the sole purpose of displaying the reconstructed warship Vasa and educating the public about Swedish life in the 1600s and the circumstances surrounding the sinking of the Vasa (Vasa Museum, 2016). That story serves nicely as a metaphor for understanding the finances of social purpose organizations. The Vasa was a wooden warship, built during the 30 Years War of 1618– 1648 after Sweden lost a dozen ships and needed new vessels to support King Gustav II Adolph’s military campaign in the Baltic. The Vasa was the largest ship in the history of the Swedish fleet, with an extra cannon deck that the king himself had ordered during its construction. On August 10, 1628 the Vasa left her mooring at the royal palace for the first time, with 130 crewman and wives on board (for the celebration). It sailed some 1300 meters out toward the sea before a gust of wind caused it to heel over to its port (left) side. Water poured through the open cannon ports and the ship sank in the 32 meters deep channel of Stockholm harbor; 53 lives were lost. Hearings were held following the disaster but no precise cause was found and no one was held accountable. It was not until 1961 that the Vasa was successfully salvaged. The salinity of the water and the shelter of the harbor had preserved its remains to a remarkable extent (Fairley, 2016). The ship was reconstructed over time and the Vasa Museum built around it, adjacent to the harbor (Vasa Museum, 2016).