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Preface

Achieving Fiscal Sustainability

Edited by Naoyuki Yoshino and Peter J. Morgan

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Peter J. Morgan and Long Q. Trinh

Sustainable and inclusive growth in emerging Asian economies requires continued high levels of public sector investment in areas such as infrastructure, education, health, and social services. These responsibilities, especially with regard to infrastructure investment, need to be devolved increasingly to the regional government level. However, growth of sources of revenue and financing for local governments has not necessarily kept pace, forcing them, in some cases, to increase borrowing or cut spending below needed levels. This chapter reviews alternative models of the relationship between central and local governments, and provides an overview and assessment of different financing mechanisms for local governments, including tax revenues, central government transfers, bank loans, and bond issuance, with a focus on the context of emerging Asian economies. The chapter also reviews financing mechanisms for local governments and mechanisms for maintaining fiscal stability and sustainability at both the central and local government levels. Based upon the evidence on the decentralization process in Asia, it proposes some policy implications for improving central–local government relations and fiscal sustainability.

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Preface

International Economic Law Perspectives

Edited by Celine Tan and Julio Faundez

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Introduction

International Economic Law Perspectives

Celine Tan and Julio Faundez

The current economic and ecological climate calls for a reappraisal of the international legal and political framework governing natural resources, defined broadly to include materials and organisms naturally occurring in the environment, such as water, mineral and fossil fuels, and cultivated resources, such as food crops, both renewable and exhaustible. This reappraisal is urgent because the governance and management of natural resources have formed a pivotal backdrop to the evolution of international economic law in the post-war period and have been critical components of the process of economic globalization. Contributors to this collection explore the different dimensions of natural resource governance in the contemporary economic, political and legal landscape. They reflect upon and address the different aspects of the conflicts and contradictions arising at the intersection between international economic law, sustainable development and other areas of international law, notably human rights law and environmental law.

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Bridget M. Hutter

This chapter outlines some of the most prominent environmental issues we face, including changes in our understandings of environmental risks, uncertainties and damage and the inequalities attaching to them. It discusses strategies for managing these risks, focusing in particular on risk and resilience perspectives and the ways in which they relate to environmental law. The chapter introduces the organisation of the book around major themes such as variable perspectives on risk regulation; the compatibility of law with notions of risk and resilience; transnational efforts to manage environmental risks; and the difficulties associated with managing inequalities within and between countries. It concludes with an introduction to some of the emerging governance issues generated by these debates.

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References

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Edited by Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

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Edited by Bridget M. Hutter

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Introduction

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

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Foreword

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Development in Uncertain Times

Edited by Nick Williams and Tim Vorley

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Adriana Campelo

This chapter examines the origins of branding places and the evolution of brands in terms of geographic locations and purposes. Place branding finds roots in country-of-origin theory and tourism destination image. Types of geographic brands include destination branding, nation branding, city branding and regional branding. The geographic brands adopt particular strategies depending upon motivations and goals. In common, national, regional and city brands have the need of collaboration and the challenge of reconciling many stakeholders. Albeit marketing techniques may vary from one type of geographic branding to another, the underlying aim remains to reach some kind of social and economic development. Place branding comes together with other initiatives of public management such as infrastructure, education, safeness, positive business environment, public–private partnerships and local population involvement.